Sociology Applied to History

History depends heavily on sociology. Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples are an important organizing principle for history. Communities and social mechanics can also be used to examine history.

   

Sociology

Sociology can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory. Much prehistory has to be reconstructed from indirect physical evidence. Sociology can also be used to examine antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millenium BC, and early 1st millennium BC. Written sources are available for some societies of this age. It can also be used to examine classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history. Better and more detailed analysis is possible. It can also be used to examine modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Sociology can be most easily and directly applied to this period. It can also be used to examine the future including the near future, middle future, and far future.

Peoples of the world

Most history has been traditionally organized around nations or parts of them, but the approach used on this site emphasizes larger groupings with shared or closely related histories. Western Civilization including Balkan peoples, Latin peoples, Northeast European peoples, Germanic peoples, Scandinavian peoples, and Anglic peoples can be used to examine history. Asiatic peoples including Middle Eastern peoples, South Asian peoples, Central Asian peoples, Oriental peoples, and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples are even more important in history. African peoples including East African, West African, Central African, and Southern African peoples can also be used. American Indian peoples including Middle American Indian, South American Indian, and North American Indian peoples can be used to examine history.

Communities

Particular cities can be connected and used to illustrate nations and peoples in prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, modern history, and the future.

Cities such as Shantou, Amman, Cologne, Colombo, Hefei, Changsa, Kano, Casablanca Kunming, Wuxi, Medellin, Faisalabad, Aleppo, Montreal, Dakar, Athens, Changzhou, Durban, Porto Alegre, Jaipur, Fortaleza, Addis Ababa, Changchun, Shijiazhuang, Recife, Mashhad, Seattle, Salvador, Urumqi, Lucknow, Chittagong, Wenzhou, Ibadan, Izmir, Curitiba, San Diego, Yaounde, Zhangjiagang, Kanpur, Zhongshan, Sana'a, and Tel Aviv have yet to be distributed among the various peoples.

North Central Chinese cities such as Beijing, Tianjin, Xian, Zhengzhou, and Jinan can be connected. South Central Chinese cities such as Shanghai, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Ningbo can be connected. Southern Coastal chinese cities such as Canton, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Hong Kong, Quanzhou, Xiamen, and Fuzhou can be connected. Taipei can be connected. Southern Interior Chinese cities such as Chengdu and Chongqing can be connected. Northern Chinese cities such as Shenyang, Harbin, Dalian, and Taiyuan can be connected.

Japanese cities such as Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya can be connected. Korean cities such as Seoul and Busan can be connected.

Indian cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, and Surat are also significant. Pakistani cities such as Karachi and Lahore are significant. Bangladeshi cities such as Dacca are important.

Mainland Southeast Asian cities such as Saigon, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Yangon, and Hanoi can be considered.

Southeast Asian Island cities such as Jakarta, Manila, Bandung, Surabaya, and Medan can be considered.

Egyptian cities such as Cairo and Alexandria can be considered. Turkish cities such as Istanbul and Ankara can be considered. Persian cities such as Tehran and Kabul can be considered. Mesopotamian cities such as Baghdad and Kuwait City can be connected. Arabian cities such as Riyadh, Dubai, and Jeddah can be considered.

Eastern American cities such as New York City, Chicago, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston, and Detroit can be connected. Southern American cities such as Dallas, Miami, Houston, and Atlanta can be connected. Western American Cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Phoenix can be connected.

Canadian cities including Toronto are modern. British cities such as London are classical and medieval and modern. Anglo-Australian cities include Sydney and Melbourne

Hispanic cities such as Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Lima, Santiago, Madrid, Guadalajara, Bogota, Barcelona, and Monterrey are mostly modern. Lusitanic cities such as Sao Paulo , Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte are mostly modern. French cities such as Paris can be examined. Italian cities such as Milan, Rome, and Naples are classical and medieval and modern.

Germanic cities such as Essen and Berlin can be connected. Northeast European peoples such as Moscow and St. Petersburg can be connected.

Cities of African peoples such as Lagos, Kinshasa, Johannesburg, Luanda, Khartoum, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Accra, and Cape Town are generally newer and smaller.

Social mechanics

Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 18th century, and 20th century; and the future. If there are laws or regularities of history, they are likely to be discussed here.

Social change

Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC, classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century, and the future.

Particular changes and movements

Particular changes and movements including stone age developments, the agricultural revolution, the agrarian revolution, and the industrial revolution can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future.

Stone age developments

Stone age developments can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory. They can be used to examine antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC, although they became less important in this period. They can also be used to examine classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history, although they were well overshadowed by other developments. They can also be used to modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century, although they became still less important. They can also be used to examine the future.

Agricultural revolution

The agricultural revolution can be be used to examine prehistory including middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval and late medieval history; and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. It can also be used to examine the future.

Agrarian developments

Agrarian developments including bronze age developments, American civilization, early iron age developments, late iron age developments, and modernization can be connected to prehistory beginning in late prehistory, antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval and late medieval history, and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 17th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Bronze age developments can be used to examine prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. American civilization can be used to examine prehistory, antiquity; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval and late medieval history and modern history including the 16th century, 17th centuy, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Early Iron age developments can be used to examine antiquity including the late 2nd millennium BC and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Late iron age developments can be used to examine antiquity including the 1st millennium BC, classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history, and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Modernization can be used to examine classical and medieval history including late medieval history and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Industrial revolution

The industrial revolution including the early industrial revolution, middle industrial revolution, and late industrial revolution can be used to examine modern history including the 18th century, 19th century, 20th century, and the future.

The early industrial revolution can be be used to examine modern history including the 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. The middle industrial revolution can be used to examine modern history including the 19th century and 20th century. The late industrial revolution can be used to examine modern history including the 20th century.

Social change factors

Social change factors including institutional change, cultural change, demographic change, and natural change can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future.

Institutional change can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17h century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Cultural change can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Demographic change can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Natural change can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehitory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, an 20th century; and the future.

Social change processes

Social change processes including innovation, transmission, adaptation, and extinction can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; and modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and the future.

Innovation can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC, classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history, modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Transmission can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, early mid prehistory, mid prehistory, late mid prehistory, mid prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Adaptation can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Extinction can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future.

Social types

Social types including hunting and gathering society, horticultural society, agrarian society, and industrial society can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory, antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future.

Hunting and gathering societies can be connected to prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Horticultural societies can be used to examine prehistory including middle prehistory and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Agrarian society can be connected to prehistory including late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Industrial society can be used to examine modern history including the 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century and the future.

Social structure

Social structure including community and regional structure, class structure, institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th cntury, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future.

Community and regional structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Class structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical history, late classical history, early medieval history, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Institutional structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Cultural structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future. Anthropological structure can be used to examine prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory; antiquity including the early 3rd millennium BC, late 3rd millennium BC, early 2nd millennium BC, late 2nd millennium BC, and early 1st millennium BC; classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history; modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future.

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Created 10 June 2013 Last updated 24 Jul 2017