Late 18th Century

The late 18th century includes the early 1780s, late 1780s, early 1790s, and late 1790s.

Italy was partly ruled by the kingdom of Sicily, Papal states, and numerous smaller states. Egypt was under Ottoman rule, but was briefly invaded and occupied by the French under Napoleon in 1798. The British East India company extended its rule beyond Bengal to more of India. The Durrani empire declined. The imperial government of China began to be increasingly corrupt and the White Lotus rebellion began. The Japanese continued the policy of isolation from Western civilization. The VOC ruled the Dutch East Indies.

   

Early 1780s

Late 1780s

Early 1790s

Late 1790s

Other history

Other history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, modern history, and the future can be connected.

  • Links to other sites

Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social mechanics can be connected.

Peoples of the world

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Nations such as Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, can be connected.

Western Civilization

Western Civilization including Anglic peoples, Latin peoples, Germanic peoples, and Northeast European peoples can be connected. Argentina can be connected. Cities such as Sao Paulo can be connected.

Anglic peoples including Anglo-American peoples can be connected. The United Kingdom can be connected. Cities such as New York City can be connected.

Anglo-American peoples such as thoe of the United States can be connected.

Latin peoples including Italian, French, Hispanic, and Lusitanic peoples can be connected. Spain can be connected. Cities such as Mexico City can be connected.

Italy can be connected. Italy was partly ruled by the kingdom of Sicily, Papal states, and numerous smaller states.

French peoples such as those of France can be connected.

Hispanic peoples including Hispanic Mexican American peoples can be connected. Colombia can be connected. Hispanic Mexican American peoples such as those of Mexico can be connected.

Lusitanic peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected.

Germanic peoples such as those of Germany can be connected.

Northeast European peoples such as those of Ukraine can be connected. East Slavic peoples such as those of Russia can be connected.

Asiatic peoples

Asiatic peoples including Middle Eastern, South Asian, Oriental, and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples can be connected. Burma can be connected. Cities such as Delhi can be connected.

Middle Eastern peoples including Egyptian and Persian peoples can be connected. Turkey can be connected. Egypt can be connected. Egypt was under Ottoman rule, but was briefly invaded and occupied by the French under Napoleon in 1798. Persian peoples such as those of Iran can be connected.

South Asian peoples such as those of India and Pakistan can be connected. Bangladesh can be connected. Cities such as Mumbai can be connected. India can be connected. The British East India company extended its rule beyond Bengal to more of India. Pakistan can be connected. The Durrani empire declined.

Oriental peoples such as those of China and Japan can be connected. South Korea can be connected. Cities such as Seoul can be connected. China can be connected. The imperial government began to be increasingly corrupt and the White Lotus rebellion began. Japan can be connected. The Japanese continued the policy of isolation from Western civilization. Cities such as Tokyo can be connected.

Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples including Mainland Southeast Asian peoples and Southeast Asian Island peoples can be connected. Thailand can be connected. Cities such as Jakarta can be connected.

Mainland Southeast Asian peoples such as those of Vietnam can be connected. Southeast Asian Island peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected. The Philippines can be connected. Indonesia can be connected. The VOC ruled the Dutch East Indies.

African peoples

African peoples including Eastern African, Western African, Central African, and Southern African peoples can be connected. Kenya can be connected.

Eastern African peoples including Northern East African peoples can be connected. Tanzania can be connected. Northern East African peoples such as those of Ethiopia can be connected.

Western African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

Central African peoples such as those of Congo DR can be connected.

Southern African peoples such as those of South Africa can be connected.

American Indian peoples

American Indian peoples including Middle American Indian, South American Indian, and North American Indian peoples can be connected. Argentina can be connected.

Middle American Indian peoples including Southwestern American Indian peoples and Meso-American peoples can be connected. Colombia can be connected.

Meso-American peoples such as those of Mexico can be connected.

Southwestern American Indian peoples including those of the southwestern United States can be connected. Northern Mexico can be connected. The southwestern United States can be connected.

South American Indian peoples including Amazonian peoples can be connected. Colombia can be connected. Amazonian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected.

North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Communities

Cities such as Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, can be connected.

World cities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, and Shanghai can be considered.

Social mechanics

Social change

Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be connected.

Particular changes and movements

Particular changes and movements including stone age developments ,the agricultural revolution, agrarian development and the industrial revolution can be connected.

Stone age developments can be connected. The agricultural revolution can be connected. Agrarian developments including bronze age developments, American civilization, early iron age developments, late iron age developments, and modernization can be connected. The industrial revolution including the early industrial revolution, middle industrial revolution, and late industrial revolution can be connected.

Social change factors including cultural change, demographic change, and natural change can be connected. Institutional change can be connected.

Social change processes including innovation, transmission, adaptation, and extinction can be connected.

Social types

Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies can be connected.

Industrial societies can be connected. Agrarian societies can be connected. Horticultural societies can be connected. Hunting and gathering societies can be connected.

Social structure including institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected. Community and regional structure can be connected. Class structure can be connected.

Institutions

Religion

Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religous practice, and religious belief can be connected.

Particular religions including Asiatic religion and secularism can be connected. Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected. Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religous belief can be connected.

Government

Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Particular governments including international government, national government, and local government can be connected. Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected. Government structure including government forms, executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.

Economics including industries and economic activity can be connected. Economic systems including economic system behavior, economic system types, networks, and firms can be connected.

Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Family studies including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected. Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Particular groups can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Biography can be connected.

  • Smith, Adam (1723 CE -1790 CE)
  • Washington, George (1732 CE - 1799 CE)
  • Watt, James (1736 CE - 1819 CE)
  • Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent (1743 CE - 1794 CE)
  • Faraday, Michael (1791 CE - 1867 CE)

Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Science

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected. Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected.

Chemistry including chemical systems and chemical change can be connected. Chemical substance including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.

Physics including the structure of matter can be connected. Quantum physics and relativity had not yet developed. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Lavoisier did experiments in calorimetry and Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) established that heat was generated by friction. Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected. Lagrange began using the principle of least motion to reformulate Newtonian mechanics.


Created 14 Sep 2013 Last updated 7 Oct 2017