Late 19th Century

This includes events of the early 1880s, late 1880s, early 1890s, and late 1890s.

Italy was somewhat allied with England and in competition with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Alfonso XIII ruled Spain as a constitutional monarch, but Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines in the Spanish American War of 1898. Alexander III and Nicholas II ruled Russia.

Turkey was part of the Ottoman empire, which continued to decline in influence. Egypt was nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, but was occupied in 1882 by the British. Algeria was ruled by France. The Indian National Congress was founded. There was a major riot between Hindus and Muslims, and a major outbreak of bubonic plague. What is now Pakistan was under British rule. The late 19th century in China ended with the Boxer Rebellion. Japan continued to industrialize and Westernize. The French ruled Vietnam. Chulalongkorn continued to rule Siam as Rama V and continued attempts at modernization, but lost territory.The Netherlands contined to rule the Dutch East Indies.

The Germans and British partitioned East Africa between themselves. Zanzibar became a protectorate of Great Britain.

Early 1880s

Late 1880s

Early 1890s

Late 1890s

Other History

Other history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, other periods of modern history, and the future can be used to examine the early 1880s, late 1880s, early 1890s, and late 1890s.

  • Links to other sites

Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social mechanics can be used to examine the late 19th century.

Institutions

Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be connected.

Religion

Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religous practice, and religious belief can be connected.

Particular religions including secularism can be connected. Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected. Asian religion including Indian religion, East Asian religion, and Persian religion can be connected. Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.

Government

Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Particular governments including national government, and local government can be connected. International government including modern compacts, colonial empires, and traditional empires can be connected.

Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected. Government structure including government forms, executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.

Economics

Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected.

Economic systems including economic system behavior, economic system types, networks, and firms can be connected. Industries including social and medical services, commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.

Education

Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected.

School systems including higher education, secondary education, and primary education can be connected. Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.

Families

Families including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.

Culture

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected.

Cultural events including holidays, disasters, expeditions, awards, and gatherings can be connected. Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected.

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.

Miscellaneous artifacts such as sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be connected.

Human geography

Human geography including Asian geography, European geogrpahy, African geogrpahy, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected.

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology including environmental effects on people can be connected. Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life forms can be connected.

Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Biography can be connected.

  • Darwin, Charles (1809-1882 CE)
  • Pasteur, Louis (1822 CE - 1895 CE)
  • Einstein, Albert (1879 CE - 1955 CE)

Psychology including personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. Social psychology can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Science

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected.

Astronomy including galactic astronomy and stellar astronomy can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.

Chemistry including chemical systems can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.

Physics

Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected. Relativity had not yet developed.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Quantum physics originated. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected.


Created 14 Mar 2013 Last updated 11 Sep 2017