Late Mid 19th Century

This includes events of the early 1860s, late 1860s, early 1870s, and late 1870s.

Queen Isabella II was deposed in 1868 by the Glorious Revolution, and after a short lived Spanish republic, the Bourbon restoration brought Alfonxo XII to the throne in 1874. Italy became a nation-state in 1861 and was involved in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. In Russia, Alexander II emancipated the serfs in 1861.

In Turkey, the later Tanzimat period included an attempt to modernize the country, but it continued to decline in influence. Several areas on the Balkan peninsula gained independence. Egypt was nominally part of the Ottoman empire, but the successors of Muhammed Ali ruled. The Suez canal was completed in 1869. Algeria was ruled by France.

The British directly or indirectly ruled most of India. Bombay became one of the largest seaports on the Indian Ocean as an exporter of cotton following the American Civil war (1861-65) and the opening of the Suez Canal . The Anglo-Afghan wars were fought partly in what is now Pakistan, which was mostly under British rule. What is now Bangladesh was largely under British rule.

In China, the Taiping rebellion against Manchu rule was put down, but others arose. In Japan, The shogunate was ended and the emperor was restored to power in the Meiji restoration. Japan began to industrialize and Westernize.

The French began to conquer and colonize Vietnam. In Thailand, Mongkut ruled as Rama IV and was succeeded by his son Chulalongkorn. The Netherlands continued to rule the Dutch East Indies, with what was called the Ethical system.

The Germans and British partitioned East Africa between themselves. Zanzibar became a protectorate of Great Britain.

Early 1860s

Late 1860s

Early 1870s

Late 1870s

Other history

Other history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, other modern history, and the future can be used to examine the early 1860s, late 1860s, early 1870s, and late 1870s.

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Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social mechanics can be connected.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be connected.


Particular religions including Asiatic religion and secularism can be connected. Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected. Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.


Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Particular governments including international government, national government, and local government can be connected. Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected. Government structure including government forms, executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.


Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected.

Economic systems including economic system behavior, economic system types, networks, and firms can be connected. Industries including social and medical services, commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.


Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected.

School systems including higher education, secondary education, and primary education can be connected. Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.


Familiy including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected.

Cultural events including holidays, disasters, expeditions, awards, and gatherings can be connected. Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture including graphic arts and language can be connected. Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected.

Material culture including clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected. Miscellanous artifacts such as sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected.


Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Particular groups such as the Royal Society can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.


  • Darwin, Charles (1809-1882 CE)
  • Pasteur, Louis (1822 CE - 1895 CE)
  • Einstein, Albert (1879 CE - 1955 CE)
  • Faraday, Michael (1791 CE - 1867 CE)
  • Marx, Karl (1818 CE -1883 CE)
  • Maxwell, James Clerk (1831 CE -1879 CE)

Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.


Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected. Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected.

Chemistry including chemical systems can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.


Physics including the structure of matter, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected. Quantum physics and relativity had not yet developed.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected.

Created 26 Feb 2013 Last updated 10 Oct 2017