Mid 19th Century

This includes events of the early 1840s, late 1840s, early 1850s, and late 1850s.

Italy was divided between the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, papal states, and Austrian dominions, and efforts for unification continued. Nicholas I ruled Russia and was involved in the Crimean war, and was followed by Alexander II.

The Tanzimat period of Ottoman history include some modernization. The Ottoman Empire was involved in the Crimean war. Egypt was nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, but Muhammad Ali Pasha and his successors ruled. The British East India company ruled most of India until the rebellion of 1857, after which the British government took direct control. The British defeated the Sikh empire in the Anglo-Sikh wars and gained control of what is now Pakistan. Following the Opium wars, the Taiping rebellion against Manchu rule arose. Japan's isolation ended when it was forced to accept western traders. The Nguyen dynasty ruled Vietnam and increasingly came into conflict with the French. The Netherlands continued to rule the Dutch East Indies.

Europeans began exploring the region of Tanganyika. Zanzibar was under the rule of the Sultanate of Oman.

   

Early 1840s

Late 1840s

Early 1850s

Late 1850s

Other History

Other history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, other modern history, and the future can be connected.

  • Links to other sites

Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social mechanics can be connected.

Peoples of the world

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Nations such as Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, and Guinea can be connected.

Western Civilization

Western Civilization including Anglic peoples, Latin peoples, Germanic peoples, and Northeast European peoples can be connected. Peru can be connected. Cities such as Sao Paulo can be connected.

Anglic peoples including Anglo-American peoples and British peoples can be connected. Canada can be connected. Cities such as New York City can be connected. British peoples such as those of the United Kingdom can be connected. Anglo-American peoples including those of the United States can be connected.

Latin peoples including Italian, French, Hispanic, and Lusitanic peoples can be connected. Argentina can be connected. Cities such as Mexico City can be connected.

Italian peoples such as those of Italy can be connected.

French peoples such as those of France can be connected.

Hispanic peoples including Hispanic Mexican American peoples and Hispanic Colombian American peoples can be connected. Spain can be connected. Hispanic Mexican American peoples such as those of Mexico can be connected. Hispanic Colombian American peoples such as those of Colombia can be connected.

Lusitanic peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected.

Germanic peoples such as those of Germany can be connected.

Northeast European peoples including East Slavic peoples can be connected. Poland can be connected.

East Slavic peoples such as those of Russia can be connected. Ukraine can be connected. Russia can be connected. Nicholas I ruled and was involved in the Crimean war, and was followed by Alexander II.

Asiatic peoples

Asiatic peoples including Middle Eastern, South Asian, Oriental, and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples can be connected. Morocco can be connected. Cities such as Karachi can be connected.

Middle Eastern peoples including Turkish, Egyptian, Persian, and North African peoples can be connected. Iraq can be connected.

Turkey can be connected. The Tanzimat period include some modernization. The Ottoman Empire was involved in the Crimean war.

Egypt can be connected. Egypt was nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, but Muhammad Ali Pasha and his successors ruled.

Persian peoples such as those of Iran can be connected.

North African peoples such as those of Algeria can be connected.

South Asian peoples such as those of India and Pakistan can be connected. Bangladesh can be connected. Cities such as Delhi can be connected.

India can be connected. The British East India company ruled most of India until the rebellion of 1857, after which the British government took direct control. Cities such as Mumbai can be connected.

Pakistan can be connected. The British defeated the Sikh empire in the Anglo-Sikh wars and gained control of what is now Pakistan.

Oriental peoples

Oriental peoples including Chinese and Japanese peoples can be connected. South Korea can be connected. Cities such as Seoul and Shanghai can be connected. China can be connected. Following the Opium wars, the Taiping rebellion against Manchu rule arose. Japan can be connected. Japan's isolation ended when it was forced to accept western traders. Tokyo can be connected.

Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples

Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples including mainland Southeast Asian peoples and Southeast Asian island peoples can be connected. Burma can be connected. Cities such as Manila can be connected.

Mainland Southeast Asian peoples including Vietnam can be connected. Thailand can be connected. Vietnam can be connected. The Nguyen dynasty ruled Vietnam and increasingly came into conflict with the French.

Southeast Asian Island peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected. The Philippines can be connected. Cities such as Jakarta can be connected. Indonesia can be connected. The Netherlands continued to rule the Dutch East Indies.

African peoples

African peoples including East African, West African, Central African, and Southern African peoples can be connected. Sudan can be connected.

East African peoples

East African peoples including Northern East African and Central East African peoples can be connected. Uganda can be connected. Northern East African peoples such as those of Ethiopia can be connected. Central East African peoples such as those of Tanzania can be connected. Kenya can be connected. Tanzania can be connected. Europeans began exploring the region of Tanganyika. Zanzibar was under the rule of the Sultanate of Oman.

Western African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

Central African peoples such as those of Congo DR can be connected.

Southern African peoples such as those of South Africa can be connected.

American Indian peoples

Ameican Indian peoples including Middle American Indian peoples, South American Indian peoples, and North American Indian peoples can be connected. Peru can be connected.

Middle American Indian peoples including Meso-American and Southwestern American Indian peoples can be connected. Colombia can be connected. Meso-American peoples such as those of Mexico can be connected. Southwestern American Indian peoples such as those of the southwestern United States can be connected. Northern Mexico can be connected. The southwestern United States can be connected.

South American Indian peoples including Andean and Amazonian peoples can be connected. Argentina can be connected. Andean peoples such as those of Colombia can be connected. Amazonian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected.

North American Indian peoples including Eastern North American Indian peoples and Western North American Indian peoples can be connected. Canada can be connected.

Eastern North American Indian peoples such as those of the eastern United States can be connected. Western North American Indian peoples such as those of the western United States can be connected.

Communities

Cities such as Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya can be connected.

Asian cities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mumbai, Jakarta, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, and Cairo can be connected. Western Cities such as Mexico City, New York City and Sao Paulo can be connected.

Social mechanics

Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be connected.

Social change

Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be connected.

Particular changes and movements

Particular changes and movements including stone age developments, the agricultural revolution, agrarian developments, and the industrial revolution can be connected.

Stone age developments can be connected. The agricultural revolution can be connected. Agrarian developments including bronze age developments, American civilization, early iron age developments, late iron age developments, and modernization can be connected. The industrial revolution including the early industrial revolution can be connected. The middle industrial revolution can be connected. The late industrial revolution had not yet begun.

Social change factors including cultural change, demographic change, and natural change can be connected. Institutional change can be connected.

Social change processes including innovation, transmission, adaptation, and extinction can be connected.

Social types

Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies can be connected.

Industrial societies can be connected. Agrarian societies can be connected. Horticultural societies can be connected. Hunting and gathering societies can be connected.

Social structure including institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected. Community and regional structure can be connected. Class structure can be connected.

Institutions

Religion

Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected.

Particular religions including Asiatic religion and secularism can be connected. Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected. Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.

Government

Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Particular governments including international governent, national government, and local government can be connected. Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected. Government structure including government forms, executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.

Economics

Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected.

Economic systems including economic system behavior, economic system types, networks, and firms can be connected. Industries including social and medical services, commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.

Education

Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected.

School systems including higher education, secondary education, and primary education can be connected. Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.

Family

Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.

Culture

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainmnent, occupations, and customs can be connected.

Cultural events such as holidays, disasters, expeditions, awards, and gatherings can be connected. Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture including literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected.

Material culture including communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected. Miscellanous artifacts such as sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected.

Anthropology

Particular groups such as the Royal Society can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Biography can be connected.

  • Darwin, Charles (1809-1882 CE)
  • Pasteur, Louis (1822 CE - 1895 CE)
  • Faraday, Michael (1791 CE - 1867 CE)
  • Marx, Karl (1818 CE -1883 CE)
  • Maxwell, James Clerk (1831 CE -1879 CE)

Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Science

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected. Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected.

Chemistry including chemical systems can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.

Physics

Physics including the structure of matter, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected. Quantum physics and relativity had not yet developed.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected.


Created 28 Mar 2013 Last updated 3 Oct 2017