Late Mid 20th Century

This is divided into 5 year periods of the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

This included much of what is was called the Cold War.The United States was involved in the Vietnam War.

Italy at first enjoyed an economic boom, but social and political unrest developed. France continued to lose holdings in Africa. Spain was ruled by Francisco Franco. After his death, the monarchy was restored under Juan Carlos. Adolfo Lopez, Gustavo Diaz, Luis Echeverria, and Jose Lopez presided over Mexico. In Guatemala, There was civil war between the US-backed government and communist rebels. A political arrangement known as the National Front controlled the government of Colombia. Venezuela benefitted from higher oil prices, but several revolutionary movements also flourished. There were several short-lived governments in Peru. Brazil came under military rule.

Germany remained divided during the Cold War. The Netherlands began to liberalize.

The economy of the USSR declined. Poland was politically dominated by the USSR. Hungary was ruled by Communist governments.

In Egypt, Nasser was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Egypt was involved in war with Israel in 1973. A peace treaty with Israel was signed. In turkey, civilian government was interrupted by military coups on several occasions. The Pahlavis ruled Iran until the Iranian revolution of 1979. Algeria gained independence from the French. Saudia Arabia became wealthy and influential from oil sales and became somewhat westernized.

India was involved in struggles with Pakistan. East Pakistan won independence as Bangladesh in 1971. Nepal was ruled by king Mahendra and his son Bihendra.

The Peoples Republic of China was led by Mao, who initiated a Cultural Revolution before he died. Japan became a major economic power. In South Korea, Park Chung-hee took power following a military coup. North Korea gradually began to distance itself from Communism in 1972, but remained totalitarian and belligerent.

The Vietnam war between North Vietnam and South Vietnam ended with the defeat of the US-backed South Vietnam. In Thailand there was a succession of military dictators and unstable governments.In Burma, A military coup took control of Burma and established a socialist type of government. Sukarno and Suharto were principal leaders of Indonesia. Ferdinand Marcos became the predominant ruler of the Philippines and established a dictatorial government.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar gained independence and were unified as Tanzania in 1964. Kenya was granted independence in 1963. A military coup in 1969 established a new government in Sudan under Gaafar Nimeiry. Uganda gained independence in 1962, but was later ruled by the notorious dictator Idi Amin. Rwanda was granted independence in 1961 by Belgium.

In Nigeria, there were numerous changes in government following its 1960 independence. in Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah established a one-party state, but was overthown in 1966 by a military coup. Kofi Abrefa Busia became Prime Minister but was overthrown by another military coup. Hamani Diori led Niger as a one-party state. Upper Volta suffered some political instability.

Congo DR was known as Zaire in part of this period. Angola gained independence from the Portuguese in 1975.

The British granted South Africa independence in 1961. Marxist and anti-colonial movements spread in the Portuguese colonial war. Mozambique was granted independence in 1975. Nyasaland was granted independence by the British in 1963. Zambia was granted independence by the UK in 1964.

Early 1960s

This includes 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, and 1965.

Late 1960s

This includes 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970.

Early 1970s

This includes 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, and 1975.

Late 1970s

This includes 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980.

Other history

Other periods of history including antiquity, classical and medieval history; other modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.


Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social structure and change can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.


Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Particular religions

Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asian religion, pagan religion, and secularism can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Abrahamic religion including Judaism can be connected. Christianity including early Christianity, Catholicism, Protestantism, Orthodoxy, and Mormonism can be connected. Islam can be connected.

Secularism can be connected.

Asian religion including East Asian religion, and Persian religion can be connected. Indian religion including Buddhism, Hinduism, Sihkhism, and Jainism can be connected.

Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

Religious organization can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. Religious practice can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.


Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Particular governments

Particular governments including international government, national government, and local government can be connected.

International government including colonial empires, and traditional empires can be connected. Modern compacts including world government, regional organizations, special purpose organizations, and temporary alliances can be connected.

National government can be connected. Local government can be connected.

Government activity including succession can be connected. State relations including warfare, diplomacy, and intelligence can be connected. Administration including security, public works and lands, welfare, and taxation can be connected.

Government structure including executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Forms of government can be connected.

Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.


Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Economic systems including networks, and firms can be connected. Economic system behavior can be connected. Economic system types can be connected.

Industries including commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Social and medical services including institutional services, personal and social services, and recreation and entertainment industries can be connected.

Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.


Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be used to exmine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

School systems including secondary education and primary education can be connected. Higher education can be connected.

Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.


Families including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Cultural events such as holidays, disasters, expeditions, awards, gatherings, can be connected. Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, ligerature, graphic arts, and language can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Miscellaneous artifacts such as sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communication technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.


Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Royal Society

Human geography

Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African goegrpahy, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geogrpahy can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life, and environmental effects on people can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects on people can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Physical anthropology including human origins, racial variation, and human dispersion can be connected.

Human dispersion can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human origins can be connected. More remains recognized as Australopithecus were found in parts of Africa. The most famous of these, "Lucy", was discovered in 1974. More specimens classified as homo habilis and homo erectus were found in Africa in this period.


Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, mortality and morbidity, and birth and fertility can be connected.

Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.



Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected.

Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

The human body including human form and appearance, human disease, human life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Human form and appearance can be connected. Human disease can be connected. The human life cycle can be connected. Body functions can be connected. Body systems can be connected.


Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s.


Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected. Cell biology including types, behavior, and structure can be connected. Molecular biology including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics can be connected.

Earth science

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.


Astronmy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected.

Galactic astronomy including cosmology, galactic types, and galactography can be connected. Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.


Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected.

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.


Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Quantum physics can be connected. Relativity including general relativity and special relativity can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected.

Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, and rigid body mechanics can be connected. Particle mechanics including particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.

Created 26 Feb 2013 Last updated 22 Sep 2017