Sixteenth Century

The 16th century is divided into periods of the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and the late 16th century. The Protestant Reformation in Europe, the beginnings of colonial empires, the beginnings of worldwide exploration and discovery, and the beginnings of the scientific revolution were important developments of this century.

   

Early 16th Century

This includes events of the early 1500s, late 1500s, early 1510s, and late 1510s.

Early mid 16th Century

This includes events of the early 1520s, late 1520s, early 1530s, and late 1530s.

Mid 16th Century

This includes events of the early 1540s, late 1540s, early 1550s, and late 1550s.

Late mid 16th Century

This includes events of the early 1560s, late 1560s, early 1570s, and late 1570s.

Late 16th Century

This includes events of the early 1580s, late 1580s, early 1590s, and late 1590s.

Other history

Other periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history; and other modern history including the 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century can be used to examine the 16th century. The future can also be used to examine this century.

Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples; communities, and social mechanics can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Institutions

Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Religion

Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Particular religions

Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asian religion, pagan religion, and secularism can be connected.

Abrahamic religion

Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected.

Christianity

Christianity including Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodoxy can be connected. Early Christianity no longer existed. Mormonism had not yet been founded. Catholicism can be connected. Protestanism can be connected. Orthodoxy can be connected.

Islam can be connected. Judaism can be connected.

Asiatic religion

Asian religion including Indian religion, East Asian religion, and Persian religion can be connected.

Indian religion

indian religion including Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism can be connected.

Buddhism can be connected. Hinduism can be connected. Sikhism can be connected. Jainism can be connected.

East Asian religion

East Asian religion including Confucianism, Taoism, Japanese religion, and Korean religion can be connected.

Confucianism can be connected. Taoism can be connected. Japanese religion can be connected. Korean religion can be connected.

Persian religion including Manicheanism can be connected. Zoroastrianism can be connected. Mithraism can be connected.

Pagan religion

Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, and American Indian religion can be connected. Neopagan religion had not yet developed.

European pagan religion including Greek, Roman, Celtic, Germanic, and possibly other religions can be connected. Asian pagan religion including Middle Eastern, Indian, Oriental, Southeast Asian, and other pagan religions can be connected. African pagan religion can be connected. American Indian religion can be connected.

Secularism can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.

Government

Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Particular governments

Particular governments including international government, national government, and local government can be connected.

International government including colonial empires, and traditional empires can be connected. Modern compacts had not yet developed.

National government can be connected. Local government can be connected.

Government activity

Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected. State relations including warfare, diplomacy, and intelligence can be connected. Administration including security, public works and lands, welfare, and taxation can be connected. Succession including election, appointment, inheritance, and seizure can be connected.

Government structure including judicial systems and policial parties and interest groups can be connected. Forms of government can be connected. Executive systems can be connected. Legislative systems can be connected.

Law including international law, Western law, Asiatic law, and tribal law can be connected.

Economics

Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Economic systems including networks and firms can be connected. Economic system behavior can be connected. Economic system types can be connected.

Industries including commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected.

Social and medical services including institutional services, personal and social services, and recreation and entertainment industries can be connected.

Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.

Education

Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

School systems including secondary education and primary education can be connected. Higher Education can be connected.

Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.

Family

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.

Culture

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Cultural events including disasters, expeditions, awards, gatherings, and performances can be connected. Holidays can be connected.

Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected.

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Miscellaneous artifacts including sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be connected.

Human geography

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be conected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects on people can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Human origins can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human dispersion can be connected.

Demography

Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Biography

Psychology

Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

Human form and appearance can be connected. Human disease can be connected. Life cycle can be connected. Body functions can be connected. Body systems can be connected.

Science

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century.

Biology

Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected. Cell biology including types, behavior, and structure can be connected. Molecular biology had not yet developed.

Earth science

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.

Astronomy

Galactic astronomy including cosmology, galactic types, and galactography can be connected. Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.

Chemistry

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.

Physics

Physics including the structure of metter, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected. Quantum physics had not yet developed. Relativity had not yet developed.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected.

Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, and rigid body mechanics can be connected. Galileo began to work in mechanics in this period. Particle mechanics including areas of particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.


Created 28 Feb 2013 Last updated 22 Jan 2018