Nineteenth Century

The 19th century is divided into 20 year periods. These are the early 19th century, early early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century. Notable developments include the growth of Anglic peoples, the collapse of various traditional empires, the continued industrial revolution, and the continued development of science.

The British empire was the most prominent of the European colonial empires. The Anglo-American peoples expanded across North America. The United States acquired much of what became the Western United States by purchase from France and by conquest from Mexico. Puerto Rico was claimed by the United States in the Spanish-American war. Australia was under British rule.

The French colonial empire existed and was influential. France alternated between Republican and Imperial forms of government. The modern country of Belgium was created. French Canada remained mostly under British rule. Haiti was ruled by France.

Spain lost most of its colonial empire and was subject to internal strife. Mexico, Guatemala, The Dominican Republic, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica gained independence, while Cuba remained under Spanish rule for most of the century. Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador gained indepencence, then broke up into separate nations. Peru and Chile gained independence. Argentina and Paraguay gained independence.

Brazil gained independence the Portuguse empire.

Italy became unified as a nation.

The Holy Roman empire was dissolved and a confederation of German states led by Prussia unified as the German empire. The empire of Austria-Hungary was one of the great powers of Europe. The Dutch Republic was succeeded by a number of kingdoms. The modern country of Belgium was created in this period.

The Russian empire under the rule of the Tsars was expanding in Central Asia and came into conflict with the French, British, the Ottoman empire, and the Austrian-Hungarian empire. Ukraine was divided between Russian and Austrian-Hungarian dominated regions.

Poland was largely partitioned by Prussia, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. It came under the rule of the empire of Austria-Hungary. Hungary was part of the Habsburg-ruled empire of Austria-Hungary.

Lithuania was under Russian rule.

Early 19th Century (1801-1820)

This includes events of the early 1800s, late 1800s, early 1810s, and late 1810s.

Early mid 19th Century (1821- 1840

This includes events of the early 1820s, late 1820s, early 1830s, and late 1830s.

Mid 19th Century (1841- 1860)

This includes events of the early 1840s, late 1840s, early 1850s, and late 1850s.

Late mid 19th Century (1861 - 1880)

This includes events of the early 1860s, late 1860s, early 1870s, and late 1870s.

Late 19th Century (1881 - 1900)

This includes events of the early 1880s, late 1880s, early 1890s, and late 1890s.

Other history

Other periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval periods, and other modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, and 20th century can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century and late 19th century.

Sociology

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization including Anglic, Latin, Germanic, Northeast European, Balkan, and Scandinavian peoples; Asiatic peoples including Middle Eastern Peoples, South Asian peoples, Central Asian peoples, Oriental peoples, and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples; African peoples, and American Indian peoples; communities; and social mechanics can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Institutions

Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and families can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Culture

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Cultural events including disasters, expeditions, awards, gatherings, and peformances can be connected. Holidays can be connected.

Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations such as service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs such as institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathemtics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Miscellaneous artifacts including sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transporation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Royal Society

Human geography

Human geography including European geography, Asian geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

European geography including Iberian geography, Italian geography, Balkan geography, Northwest European geography, Island European geography, Scandinavian geography, Central European geography, and Eastern European geography can be connected. Asian geography including Southwest Asian georaphy, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life, and environmental effects on people can be connected.

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects on people can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Physical anthropology including dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected.

Human dispersion can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human origins can be connected.

Demography

Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, mortality and morbidity, and birth and fertility can be connected.

Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Biography

Biography can be connected.

Psychology

Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

Human form and appearance can be connected. The human life cycle can be connected. Human disease can be connected. Body functions can be connected. Body systems can be connected.

Science

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century.

Biology

Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected. Cell biology including types, behavior, and structure can be connected. Molecular biology including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics can be connected.

Earth Science

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, Oceanic geography, and Terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.

Astronomy

Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected.

Galactic astronomy including cosmology, galactic types, and galactography can be connected. Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, Planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.

Chemistry

Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected.

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.

Physics

Physics including the structure of matter, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected. Relativity had not yet developed.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Quantum physics can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected.

Themodynamics including statistical mechanics and nonclassical thermodynamics can be connected. Classical thermodynamics including thermodynamic laws, thermodynamic processes, and thermodynamic systems and states can be connected.

Mechanics

Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particule mechanics can be connected.

Gravitation and celestial mechanics including nonrigid celestial mechanics, rigid body celestial mechanics, and particle celestial mechanics can be connected. General mechanics including wave mechanics, fluid mechanics, and deformable solid body mechanics can be connected. Rigid body mechanics including dynamic systems, static systems, rotational dynamics, and rigid body description and motion can be connected. Particle mechanics including particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.


Created 25 Feb 2013 Last updated 15 Jan 2018