Modern History

Modern history is divided by century into the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Current events of the early 21st century are included in the 20th century.

Although many treatments of modern history consider it to begin with the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the first voyage of Columbus in 1492, or the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in 1517, it is here considered to begin arbitrarily in 1501. The 16th century, 17th century, and 18th century are often considered together as early modern history. The 19th century and 20th century are often considered together as contemporary modern history.

   

16th century

The 16th century includes events of the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century. The Protestant Reformation in Europe, the beginnings of colonial empires, the beginnings of worldwide exploration and discovery, and the beginnings of the Scientific revolution were important developments of this century.

17th century

The 17th century includes events of the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century. It includes developments such as the 17th century wars of religion, continued development of colonial empires, continued exploration and discovery, and the continued scientific revolution.

18th century

The 18th century includes events of the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century. Some historians refer to the "short" 18th century, and others to the "long" 18th century. Major developments include the British defeat of the French empire, the American revolution and the French Revolution, philosophical developments called the Enlightenment, and the beginnings of the Industrial revolution.

19th century

The 19th century includes events of the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century. Notable developments include the growth of Anglic peoples, the collapse of various traditional empires, the continued industrial revolution, and the continued development of science.

20th century

The early 20th century includes the First World War. The early mid 20th century includes the Great Depression and the beginnings of the Second World War. The mid 20th century includes the Second World War, the beginning of the Cold War, and a decolonization movement. The late mid 20th century includes the Cold war and significant changes in society. The late 20th century includes the end of the Cold War and the rise of radical Islam. The early 21st century includes recent and current events.

Other history

Earlier periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, and classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. These may provide some background to events of modern history. The future can also be connected.

Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social structure and change can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Peoples of the world are frequently used to examine modern history. Western civilization expanded to dominate the rest of the world. Anglic, Latin, and Germanic peoples developed overseas colonial empires and Northeast European peoples developed an inland empire in Asia, while Balkan peoples did not. Among Asiatic peoples, the Ottoman empire collapsed and Middle Eastern peoples were partly dominated by Europeans. South Asian peoples came under British rule, and some South Asian peoples also came under European rule. Most Oriental peoples escaped direct political dominion but were culturally influenced. Central Asians were more or less divided between Northeast European and Oriental peoples. African peoples including Eastern African, Western African, Central Africa, and Southern African peoples were explored and more of their history was recorded. American Indian peoples were conquered and submerged by Western Civilization. Communities developed considerably. There was substantial social change, including developments known as the industrial revolution.

Institutions

Institutions including government, economics, education, and families can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be applied.

Culture

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century and 20th century.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century and 20th century.

Biography

Biography can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century and 20th century.

Psychology

Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century; the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Social psychology can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Personality can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Mental disorders can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Develomental psychology can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Behavior patterns can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Mind can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Behavioral elements can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Human body

The human body includng human form and appearance, human disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century; and the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Human form and appearance can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Human disease can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Life cycle can be used to examine the 16th century, 18th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Body functions can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Body systems can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Science

Physical and natural science including biology, earth science, astronomy, earth science, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the 16th century, the 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century; the 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century; the 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century; and the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Biology

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be used to examine the 16th century, the 17th century, and 18th century. It can be used to examine the 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century. It can also be used to examine the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life can be ued to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Cell biology including cell types, behavior, and structure can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Molecular biology including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics can be used to examine the 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Earth science

Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, and 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century. It can be used to examine the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestial geoography can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Astronomy

Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century; and the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Galactic astronomy including cosmology, galactic types, and galactography can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Chemistry

Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical subtances can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century; the 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century; and the 20th century. including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid systems can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Chemical change including nuclear rections, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Physics

Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electronomagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be used to examine the 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century; the 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century; the 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century; the 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century; and the 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Quantum physics can be used to examine the 19th century and 20th century. Relativity including general relativity and special relativity can be used to examine the 19th century and 20th century. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century.

Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Nonclasssical thermodynamics can be connected. Classical thermodynamics including Thermodynamic laws, processes, and systems and states can be connected.

Mechanics

Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be used to examine the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century. Knowledge of mechanics developed substantially in modern times.

Gravitation and celestial mechanics including nonrigid celestial mechanics, rigid body celestial mechanics, particle celestial mechanics, and surface gravitation can be connected. General mechanics including wave mechanics, fluid mechanics, and deformable solid bodies can be connected. Rigid body mechanics including dynamic systems, static systems, rotational dynamics, and rigid body description and motion can be connected. Particle mechanics including particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.


Created 25 Feb 2013 Last updated 13 Mar 2017