Systematics deals with the classification of living things. Organisms can be roughly categorized as animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes.
Animals are recognizable as mobile, active living things. These include vertebrate animals, the fishes and the familiar land animals, collectively called the tetrapods (for instance frogs, turtles, reptiles, birds, and mammals),. These include invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, protostomes such as molluscs, worms and arthropods, and a group technically called deuterostomes which includes the echinoderms (starfish, for instance)
Fungi resemble plants, but have recently been recognized has having closer affinity at the sub-cellular level to the animals.
Plants are easily recognizable as relatively immobile, but living and growing things: they are typically green in color (at least in part) because they contain chlorophyll. These are somewhat more difficult to classify than animals, since the primary divisions based on form as trees, shrubs, and herbs cut across divisions based on other biological characteristics.
These have often been classified along with the microbes, since they are typically single celled and microscopic. There are representatives of the protists that resemble the plants, fungi, and animals, as well as some that do not show clear affinities to any of these groups.
Microbes are too small to be visible without the aid of magnifying instruments, including the microscope. There are three main divisions of this group: Bacteria, Archaea (formerly called Archaebacteria), and viruses.
Early prehistory including Pliocene prehistory, early Pleistocene prehistory, early mid Pliestocene prehistory, mid Pleistocene prehistory, and late mid Pleistocene prehistory can be connected. Middle prehistory including the 5th decamillennium BP, 4th decamillennium BP, 3rd decamillennium BP, and 2nd decamillennium BP can be connected. Late prehistory including the 8th millennium BC, 7th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC, 5th millennium BC, and 4th millennium BC can be connected.
The early 3rd millennium BC including the 30th century BC, 29th century BC, 28th century BC, 27th century BC, and 26th century BC can be connected. The late 3rd millennium BC including the 25th century BC, 24th century BC,23rd century BC, 22nd century BC, and 21st century BC can be connected. The early 2nd millennium BC including the 20th century BC, 19th century BC, 18th century BC, 17th century BC, and 16th century BC can be connected. The late 2nd millennium BC including the 15th century BC, 14th century BC, 13th century BC, 12th century BC, and 11th century BC can be connected. The early 1st millennium BC including the 10th century BC, 9th century BC, 8th century BC, 7th century BC, and 6th century BC can be connected.
Early classical history including the 5th century BC, 4th century BC, 3rd century BC, 2nd century BC, and 1st century BC can be connected. Late classical history including the 1st century CE, 2nd century CE, 3rd century CE, 4th century CE, and 5th century CE can be connected. Early medieval history including the 6th century CE, 7th century CE, 8th century CE, 9th century CE, and 10th century CE can be connected. Late medieval history including the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE can be connected.
The 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century can be connected. The 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century can be connected. The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected.
The 20th century including the early 20th century can be connected. The early mid 20th century including the early 1920s, late 1920s, early 1930s, and late 1930s can be connected. The mid 20th century including the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s can be connected. The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected.
The future including the near future, middle future, and far future can be connected.
Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.
Nations such as Russia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Azerbaijan, Benin, Austria, can be connected.
Asiatic peoples such as those of Pakistan can be connected. South Asian peoples such as those of India can be connected. Oriental peoples such as those of China can be connected. Southeast Asian peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected.
American Indian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.
Communities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, Donguan, Hyderabad, Chengdu, Lahore, Jonannesburg, can be connected.
Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be connected. Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies. Social structure including community and regional structure, class structure, institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected.
Religion including particular religions of the world, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected. Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected. Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected. Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.
Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected. Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.
Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected. Particular groups can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected
Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.
Biography can be connected. Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.
Science including other biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.
Other biology including biohistory, ecology, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Earth Science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected. Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected. Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected. Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected.
Created 8 Oct 2013 Last updated 21 Sep 2017