Molecular Biology

Molecular biology includes the study of biological molecules of all kinds. These are divided into nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics. The discussion includes anabolism (synthesis), catabolism (breakdown), and structure.

  • Nucleic acids
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Carbohydrates
  • Small Organics
  • Inorganics
   

Nucleic acids

Chief among these is the molecule called DNA, but RNA is also important. The basic units of DNA are a saccharide, a sugar, named deoxyribose, paired with another compound called a nucleotide base. Many of these units are joined to form a long stringlike molecule which carries fundamental information about an organism.

Proteins

The major classes of proteins are structural proteins and enzymes. Enzymes are the biological catalysts that speed the chemical reactions of life and help make it possible. This section also includes protein decomposition, protein synthesis, and the amino acids that compose proteins, protein synthesis.

Lipids

Lipids, including fats, oils, terpenes, and waxes, are important components of cells. The various classes, components, and their synthesis and decomposition are part of this study.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates can be classified as polysaccharies, disaccharides, and monosaccharides.

Small Organics

Other biomolecules include hormones, vitamins, and pigments. Short-lived metabolic intermediaries are also in this group, and the major metabolic pathways are also discussed.

Inorganics

Inorganic molecules and ions will also be investigated. These are in general not synthesized, but must be obtained as nutrients from the environment.

History

History including prehistory and antiquity can be connected. Molecular biology had not developed in classical and medieval times.

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Modern history including the 16th century and 17th century can be connected. The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected.

The 20th century including the early 20th century can be connected. The early mid 20th century including the early 1920s, late 1920s, early 1930s, and late 1930s can be connected. The mid 20th century including the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s can be connected. The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected.

The early 21st century including the early 2000s and late 2000s can be connected.

The early 2010s including 2011 and 2012 can be connected. 2013 including the first quarter 2013, second quarter 2013, third quarter 2013, and fourth quarter 2013 can be connected. 2014 can be connected. The first quarter 2014 including January 2014, February 2014, and March 2014 can be connected.

Future

The future including the near future, middle future, and far future can be connected.

Sociology

Peoples of the world

Peoples including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Nations including Russia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Azerbaijan, Benin, Austria, can be connected.

Western Civilization including Brazil can be connected. Anglic peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Asiatic peoples such as those of Pakistan can be connected. South Asian peoples such as those of India can be connected. Oriental peoples such as those of China can be connected. Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected.

African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

American Indian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of the southwestern United States can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Communities

Cities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, Donguan, Hyderabad, Chengdu, Lahore, Jonannesburg, can be connected.

Social mechanics

Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be connected. Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies can be connected. Social structure including community and regional structure, class structure, institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected.

Institutions

Religion including particular religions of the world, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected. Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected. Economics including conomic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected. Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected. Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Particular groups can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthroplogy including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Biography can be connected. Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Other science

Other science including other biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Other biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, and cell biology can be connected. Earth Science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected. Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected. Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected. Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected.


Created 25 Oct 2013 Last updated 22 Sep 2017