Geology

Geology includes interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy.

  • Interior geology
  • Geologic processes
  • Landforms
  • Petrology
  • Mineralogy
   

Interior geology

Interior geology includes studies of the overall shape and form of the earth. It also includes primarily indirect observations of the inaccessible interior of the earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, and lower crust.

Geological processes

Geologic processes includes study of such subjects as erosion, mountain building, volcanoes and earthquatkes, and plate tectonics, the movement and interactions of regions of the earth's crust.

Landforms

These are roughly classified by size or order. The lowest order deals with rock formations and strata, on the order of size of kilometers and smaller. The next order includes familiar features of the landscape, with sizes on the order of tens of kilometers. A higher order ingluces mountain ranges, basins, and plateaus with sizes on the order of hundreds of kilometers. The highest order includes continents and crustal plates.

Petrology

Petrology is the study of rock and its formation. The major classes of rocks are metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous. The study of soils, or pedology, also belongs in this category, most closely allied to sedimentary rock.

Minerals

Minerals are the chemical components of the solid earth, and can be divided primarily according to chemical composition. Other properties of minerals, useful in identification, can also be described.

History

Prehistory

Early prehistory including Pliocene prehistory, early Pliestocene prehistory, early mid Pleistocene prehistory, mid Pleistocene prehistory, and late mid Pleistocene prehistory can be connected. Middle prehistory including the 5th decamillennium BP, 4th decamillennium BP, 3rd decamillennium BP, and 2nd decamillennium BP can be connected. Late prehistory including the 8th millennium BC, 7th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC, 5th millennium BC, and 4th millennium BC can be connected.

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Antiquity

The early 3rd millennium BC including the 30th century BC, 29th century BC, 28th century BC, 27th century BC, and 26th century BC can be connected. The late 3rd millennium BC including the 25th century BC, 24th century BC, 23rd centruy BC, 22nd century BC, and 21st century BC can be connected. The early 2nd millennium BC including the 20th century BC, 19th century BC, 18th century BC, 17th century BC, and 16th century BC can be connected. The late 2nd millennium BC including the 15th century BC, 14th century BC, 13th century BC, 12th century BC, and 11th century BC can be connected. The early 1st millennium BC including the 10th century, 9th century, 8th century BC, 7th century BC, and 6th century BC can be connected.

Classical and medieval history

Early classical history including the 5th century BC, 4th century BC, 3rd century BC, 2nd century BC, and 1st century BC can be connected. Late classical history including the 1st century CE, 2nd century CE, 3rd century CE, 4th century CE, and 5th century CE can be connected. Early medieval history including the 6th century CE, 7th century CE, 8th century CE, 9th century CE, and 10th century CE can be connected. Late medieval history including the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE can be connected.

Modern history

The 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century can be connected. The 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century can be connected. The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected.

The 20th century including the early 20th century can be connected. The early mid 20th century including the early 1920s, late 1920s, early 1930s, and late 1930s can be connected. The mid 20th century including the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s can be connected. The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected.

The early 21st century including the early 2000s and late 2000s can be connected.

The early 2010s including 2011 and 2012 can be connected. 2013 including the first quarter 2013, second quarter 2013, third quarter 2013, and fourth quarter 2013 can be connected.

2014 can be connected. The first quarter 2014 including January 2014, February 2014, and March 2014 can be connected.

Future

The future including the near future, middle future, and far future can be connected.

Sociology

Peoples of the world

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Nations including Russia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Azerbaijan, Benin, Austria, can be connected.

Western Civilization including Brazil can be connected. Anglic peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Asiatic peoples such as those of Pakistan can be connected. South Asian peoples such as those of India can be connected. Oriental peoples such as those of China can be connected. Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected.

African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

American Indian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of the southwestern United States can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Communities

Cities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, Donguan, Hyderabad, Chengdu, Lahore, Jonannesburg, can be connected.

Social structure and change

Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be connected. Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies can be connected. Social structure including community and regional structure, class structure, institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected.

Institutions

Religion including particular religions of the world, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected. Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected. Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected. Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected. Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Particular groups can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Biography can be connected. Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Other science

Other science including biology, other earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Other earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, and hydrospheric science can be connected. Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected. Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected. Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected.


Created 20 Nov 2013 Last updated 22 Sep 2017