Gravitation

Gravitation includes studies of celestial mechanics, which is divided into four broad areas: nonrigid celestial mechanics, rigid body celestial mechanics, and particle celestial mechanics. Surface gravitation is an important special case and useful approximation.

   

Nonrigid Celestial mechanics

In addition to the rotational effects produced by gravitation, real bodies are elastic or fluid, not rigid. Gravitation then produces tidal effects, which include alteration of orbits and rates of rotation, mechanical stress, a tendency for bodies to become spherical or ellipsoidal, and heat generation due to friction.

Rigid Body Celestial mechanics

Spherical bodies with a uniform distribution of mass can be treated as if all the mass were concentrated at the center. However, most real bodies do not have a completely uniform distribution of mass and they are not perfectly spherical. Gravitation can produce rotational forces on extended bodies.

Particle Celestial Mechanics

Particle celestial mechanics deals with Newton's law of gravitation and its consequences. The important case of systems with two particles can be examined, and includes orbital mechanics and Kepler's laws. It also includes studies of three and more bodies, which resists exact solution in the general case.

Surface Gravitation

Surface gravitation is the simplest division of gravitation, and deals with the gravitational force near the surface of the earth or other bodies where variations are small and can usually be ignored.

History including prehistory, antiquity, and classical and medieval history can be connected.

Modern history including the 16th century and 17th century can be connected. The modern theory of gravitation developed during this period. The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected. The 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century can be connected. Methods of computation and modeling developed. The future can be connected.

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Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social mechanics can be connnected.

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected. Nations such as the United States, China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Russia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Azerbaijan, Benin, Austria, Honduras, United Arab Emirates, South Sudan, Switzerland, Israel, Tajikistan, Bulgaria, Serbia, Hong Kong, Papua New Guinea, Libya, Paraguay, Jordan, Laos, El Salvador, Togo, Nicaragua, Eritrea, Denmark, Kyrgystan, Slovakia, Finland, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Turkmenistan, Norway, Central African Republic, Ireland, Georgia, New Zealand, Costa Rica, Palestinian Territories, Croatia, Lebanon, Congo (Rep), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Puerto Rico, Kuwait, Moldova, Liberia, Panama, Mauritania, Armenia, Uruguay, Lithuania, Albania, Mongolia, Oman, Jamaica, Namibia, Lesotho, Latvia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Botswana, Qatar, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Gabon, Estonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Mauritius, Bahrain, Swaziland, East Timor, Fiji, Cyprus, and Djibouti can be examined for connections.

Communities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, Donguan, Hyderabad, Chengdu, Lahore, Johannesburg, Tehran, Essen, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Wuhan, Ahmedabad, Chongqing, Baghdad, Hangzhou, Toronto, Kuala Lumpur, Santiago, Dallas, San Francisco, Quanzhou, Miami, Shenyang, Belo Horizonte, Philadelphia, Nanjing; Madrid, Houston, Xian, Milan, Luanda, Pune; Singapore, and Riyadh can be connected. Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be connected.

Institutions including economics, education, and family studies can be connected. Religion including particular religions of the world, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected. Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Other science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and other physics can be connected.


Created 4 Mar 2017 Last updated 16 Sep 2017