Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is approximately the study of temperature and heat and related quantities. It can be roughly divided into statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics.

   

Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics involves kinetic molecular theory: the theory that matter consists of molecules (or atoms) in motion. It relates the classical thermodynamic quanties of pressure, volume, and temperature to averages of large numbers of particles. Quantum statistical mechanics uses quantum theory. Relativistic statistical mechanics uses the special theory of relativity. Classical statistical mechanics uses classical mechanics.

Nonclassical thermodynamics

Advanced or nonclassical thermodynamics deals largely non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It includes studies of heat, or thermal conductivity and the like.

Classical thermodynamics

Classical thermodynamics deals with thermodynamic systems, processes which involve changes in states and systems, and states. It deals with variables that are observable at a human scale, not with the detailed microstructure of matter. It includes subjects such as temperature and heat, and includes the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

History

History including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, modern history, and the future can be connected.

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Prehistory

Early prehistory including Pliocene prehistory, early Pleistocene prehistory, early mid Pleistocene prehistory, mid Pleistocene prehistory, and late mid Pleistocene prehistory can be connected. Middle prehistory including the 5th decamillennium BP, 4th decamillennium BP, 3rd decamillennium BP, and 2nd decamillennium BP can be connected. Late prehistory including the 8th millennium BC, 7th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC, 5th millennium BC, and 4th millennium BC can be connected.

Antiquity

The early 3rd millennium BC including the 30th century BC, 29th century BC, 28th century BC, 27th century BC, and 26th century BC can be connected. The late 3rd millennium BC including the 25th century BC, 24th century BC, 23rd century BC, 22nd century BC, and 21st century BC can be connected. The early 2nd millennium BC including the 20th century BC, 19th century BC, 18th century BC, 17th century BC, and 16th century BC can be connected. The late 2nd millennium BC including the 15th century BC, 14th century BC, 13th century BC, 12th century BC, and 11th century BC can be connected. The early 1st millennium BC including the 10th century BC, 9th century BC, 8th century BC, 7th century BC, and 6th century BC can be connected.

Classical and medieval history

Early classical history including the 5th century BC, 4th century BC, 3rd century BC, 2nd century BC, and 1st century BC can be connected. Late classical history including the 1st century CE, 2nd century CE, 3rd century CE, 4th century CE, and 5th century CE can be connected. Early medieval history including the 6th century CE, 7th century CE, 8th century CE, 9th century CE, and 10th century CE can be connected.

Late medieval history including 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, and 14th century CE can be connected. The 15th century CE including the early 15th century CE, early mid 15th century CE, mid 15th century CE, late mid 15th century CE, and late 15th century CE can be connected.

Modern history

Modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century can be connected. Thermodynamics began to develop substantially, especially in Western Civilization.

16th century

The 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century can be connected.

The early 16th century including the early 1500s, late 1500s, early 1510s, and late 1510s can be connected. The early mid 16th century including the early 1520s, late 1520s, early 1530s, and late 1530s can be connected. The mid 16th century including the early 1540s, late 1540s, early 1550s, and late 1550s can be connected. The late mid 16th century including the early 1560s, late 1560s, early 1570s, and late 1570s can be connected. The late 16th century including the early 1580s, late 1580s, early 1590s, and late 1590s can be connected. It is believed that Galileo invented a thermoscope (non-sealed temperatury measuring device)

17th century

The 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century can be connected.

The early 17th century including the early 1600s, late 1600s, early 1610s, and late 1610s can be connected. Santorio Santorio described a thermoscope. The early mid 17th century including the early 1620s, late 1620s, early 1630s, and late 1630s can be connected. The mid 17th century including the early 1640s, late 1640s, early 1650s, and late 1650s can be connected. In 1654 Fernando II de Medici invented a sealed, alcohol-filled thermometer. The late mid 17th century including the early 1660s, late 1660s, early 1670s, and late 1670s can be connected. The late 17th century including the early 1680s, late 1680s, early 1690s, and late 1690s can be connected. George Ernest Stahl proposed phlogiston theory.

18th century

The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connectd.

The early 18th century including the early 1700s, late 1700s, early 1710s, and late 1710s can be connected. The early mid 18th century including the early 1720s, late 1720s, early 1730s, and late 1730s can be connected. Gabriel Fahrenheit presented his temperature scale. The mid 18th century including the early 1740s, late 1740s, early 1750s, and late 1750s can be connected. Anders Celsius presented his termperature scale. The late mid 18th century including the early 1760s, late 1760s, early 1770s, and late 1770s can be connected. Joseph Black did research on the heat required to melt water. The late 18th century including the early 1780s, late 1780s, early 1790s, and late 1790s can be connected. Lavoisier did experiments in calorimetry and Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) established that heat was generated by friction.

19th century

The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected.

The early 19th century including the early 1800s, late 1800s, early 1810s, and late 1810s can be connected. The early mid 19th century including the early 1820s, late 1820s, early 1830s, and late 1830s can be connected. Sadi Carnot founded the modern science of thermodynamics. The mid 19th century including the early 1840s, late 1840s, early 1850s, and late 1850s can be connected. James Joule measured the mechanical equivalent of heat and formulated the principle of conservation of energy. Rudolf Clausius defined the quantity named entropy, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) named the science of thermodynamics. The late mid 19th century including the early 1860s, late 1860s, early 1870s, and late 1870s can be connected. Clausius and Maxwell formulated statistical mechanics. Ludwig Boltzmann and J. Willard Gibbs also contributed to thermodynamics. The late 19th century including the early 1880s, late 1880s, early 1890s, and late 1890s can be connected.

20th century

The 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century can be connected.

The early 20th century including the early 1900s, late 1900s, early 1910s, and late 1910s can be connected. The early mid 20th century including the early 1920s, late 1920s, early 1930s, and late 1930s can be connected. The mid 20th century including the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s can be connected.

The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s can be connected. The late 1960s including 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970 can be connected. The early 1970s including 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, and 1975 can be connected. The late 1970s including 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980 can be connected.

Late 20th century

The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected.

The early 1980s including 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, and 1985 can be connected. The late 1980s including 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, and 1990 can be connected. The early 1990s including 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 can be connected. The late 1990s including 1996, 1997, 1996, 1999, and 2000 can be connected.

Early 21st century

The early 21st century including the early 2000s, late 2000s, early 2010s, and late 2010s can be connected.

The early 2000s including 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 can be connected. The late 2000s including 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 can be connected.

The early 2010s including 2011 and 2012 can be connected. 2013 including the first quarter 2013, second quarter 2013, third quarter 2013, and fourth quarter 2013 can be connected. 2014 including the first quarter 2014, second quarter 2014, third quarter 2014, and fourth quarter 2014 can be connected. 2015 including the first quarter 2015, second quarter 2015, third quarter 2015 and fourth quarter 2015 can be connected.

The late 2010s including 2017 can be connected. 2016 including the first quarter 2016, second quarter 2016, third quarter 2016, and fourth quarter 2016 can be connected.

Future

The future including the near future, middle future, and far future can be connected.

Sociology

Sociology including peoples of the world, communities, and social mechanics can be connected.

Peoples of the world

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Nations including the Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Azerbaijan, Benin, Austria, can be connected.

Western Civilization including Anglic, Latin, and Northeast European peoples can be connected. Thermodynamics has developed first and foremost in Western civilization. Mexico can be connected. Anglic peoples such as those of the United States can be connected. Latin peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected. Northeast European peoples such as those of Russia can be connected.

Asiatic peoples

Asiatic peoples including South Asian, Oriental, and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples can be connected. Japan can be connected.

South Asian peoples such as those of India and Pakistan can be connected. Bangladesh can be connected. India can be connected. Pakistan can be connected.

Oriental peoples such as those of China can be connected.

Southeast Asian Island peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected.

African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

American Indian peoples including Middle American Indian peoples, South American Indian peoples, and North American Indian peoples can be connected. These have primarily adopted knowledge of thermodynamics from Western Cvilization. Mexico can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of the southwestern United States can be connected. South American Indian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Communities

Cities including Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, Donguan, Hyderabad, Chengdu, Lahore, Jonannesburg, can be connected.

World cities such as Tokyo can be connected.

Social mechanics

Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be connected.

Social change including social change factors and social change processes can be connected. Particular changes and movements including stone age developments, the agricultural revolution, agrarian developments, and the industrial revolution can be connected.

Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies can be connected. Social structure including community and regional structure, class structure, institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected.

Institutions

Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family studies can be connected.

Religion including religious practice and religious belief can be connected. Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asiatic religion, pagan religion, and secularism can be connected. Religious organization can be connected.

Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected. Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected. Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Family studies including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Culture

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected. Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.

Anthropology

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected.

Particular groups can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected. Social foundations including group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Biography can be connected. Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected. The human body including form and appearance, disease, life cycle, body functions, and body systems can be connected.

Other science

Other science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and other physics can be connected.

Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected. Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected.Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected. Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected.

Other physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, and relativity can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected.

Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, and rigid body mechanics can be connected. Particle mechanics including particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.


Created 9 Dec 2013 Last updated 23 Sep 2017