Introductory material




History including classical and medieval history, modern history, and the future can be connected.

Classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history can be connected. Villages that date to this period have been identified as part of modern Calcutta.

Modern history

Modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and 20th century can be connected.

The 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century can be connected. The 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century can be connected. The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected. Calcutta developed significantly under British rule.

The 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, and mid 20th century can be connected. The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. Power shortages, strikes, violence by marxist groups called the Naxalites, and refutees from the Bangladesh war of independence led to economic decline. The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected. Calcutta suffered economic decline.

The early 21st century including the early 2000s, and late 2000s can be connected. The city was officially renamed Kolkata in 2001. The early 2010s including 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 can be connected. The late 2010s including 2016 can be connected. 2017 including the first quarter 2017, second quarter 2017, third quarter 2017, and fourth quarter 2017 can be connected.


The future including the near future, middle future, and far future can be connected.

Other sociology

Peoples of the world

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Nations such as Russia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali can be connected.

Asiatic peoples including South Asian, Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples, and Oriental peoples can be connected. Pakistan can be connected. South Asian peoples such as those of India can be connected. Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected. Oriental peoples such as those of China can be connected.

Western Civilization including Brazil can be connected. Anglic peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

American Indian peoples including those of Brazil can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of the southwestern United States can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Other communities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow can be connected.

Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be connected.

Institutions including economics, education, and family studies can be connected. Religion including particular religions, religous organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected. Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations.

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.

Created 8 June 2013 Last updated 22 Nov 2017