Iraq

Introductory material

   

Content

History

History including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, modern history, and the future can be connected.

Prehistory

Prehistory including early prehistory, middle prehistory, and late prehistory can be connected.

Early prehistory including Pliocene prehistory, early Pleistocene prehistory, early mid Pliestocene prehistory, mid Pleistocene prehistory, and late mid Pleistocene prehistory can be connected. Remnants of Neanderthal man dating to approximately 80,000-60,00 years BP were found at Shanidar cave in 1957-1961. Middle prehistory including the 5th decamillennium BP, 4th decamillennium BP, 3rd decamillennium BP, and 2nd decamillennium BP can be connected. The Neolithic revolution is thought to have begun about 10,000 BC. Late prehistory including the 8th millennium BC, 7th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC, 5th millennium BC, and 4th millennium BC can be connected. The Ubaidian period began about the mid 6th millennium BC, and cities began in the Uruk period about the 4th millennium BC.

Antiquity

The early 3rd millennium BC including the 30th century BC, 29th century BC, 28th century BC, 27th century BC, and 26th century BC can be connected. Sumerian cities were present. The late 3rd millennium BC including the 25th century BC, 24th century BC, 23rd century BC, 22nd century BC, and 21st century BC can be connected. The Sumerians and Akkadians were present in this period. The early 2nd millennium BC including the 20th century BC, 19th century BC, 18th century BC, 17th century BC, and 16th century BC can be connected. The old Assyrian and old Babylonian empires were present in this period. The late 2nd millennium BC including the 15th century BC, 14th century BC, 13th century BC, 12th century BC, and 11th century BC can be connected. The Kassite Babylonian empire was present, but records of this period are scanty. The early 1st millennium BC including the 10th century BC, 9th century BC, 8th century BC, 7th century BC, and 6th century BC can be connected. The Assyrian empire and the Neo-Babylonian empire flourished in this period.

Classical and medieval history

Early classical history including the 5th century BC, 4th century BC, 3rd century BC, 2nd century BC, and 1st century BC can be connected. This was first ruled by the Achamaenid Persian empire, then the Macedonian Seleucids, the the Parthian empire. Late classical history including the 1st century CE, 2nd century CE, 3rd century CE, 14th century CE, and 5th century CE can be connected. This was ruled by the Parthian and then the Sassanid Persian empire, but the Byzantine empire also had influence in the region. Early medieval history including the 6th century CE, 7th century CE, 8th century CE, 9th century CE, and 10th century CE can be connected. Muslim Arabs conquered what is now Iraq, and the Umayyad Caliphate and Abbasid Calliphate were influential. Late medieval history including the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE can be connected. Iraq was invaded by the Mongols and the Abbasid Caliphate destroyed.

Modern history

The 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century can be connected. Iraq was mostly ruled by the Ottoman empire, contested by the Safavid dynasty of Iran. The 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century can be connected. Iraq was mostly ruled by the Ottoman empire, contested by the Safavid dynasty of Iran. The 18th century including the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. The Ottoman empire ruled Iraq.

19th century

The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected.

The early 19th century including the early 1800s, late 1800s, early 1810s, and late 1810s can be connected. The region was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty under the Ottoman Empire. The early mid 19th century including the early 1820s, late 1820s, early 1830s, and late 1830s can be connected. The Ottoman empire took dirct control of Iraq in 1831. The mid 19th century including the early 1840s, late 1840s, eary 1850s, and late 1850s can be connected. The Ottoman empire ruled Iraq. The late mid 19th century including the early 1860s, late 1860s, early 1870s, and late 1870s can be connected. The Ottoman empire ruled Iraq. The late 19th century including the early 1880s, late 1880s, early 1890s, and late 1890s can be connected. The Ottoman empire ruled Iraq.

20th century

The 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, mid 20th century, late mid 20th century, late 20th century, and early 21st century can be connected.

The early 20th century including the early 1900s, late 1900s, early 1910s, and late 1910s can be connected. The British defeated the Ottoman empire during the Mesopotamian campaign in World War I. The early mid 20th century including the early 1920s, late 1920s, early 1930s, and late 1930s can be connected. Iraq became a League of Nations mandate under Brtish rule. The mid 20th century including the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s can be connected. A coup in 1941 led to the overthrow of the monarchy. The British defeated the leaders of the coup and occupied the country until 1947 but the monarchy was again overthown in 1958 in the 14 July revolution in 1958. The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. Iraq was at first a republic, but the Ba'ath party came to power. The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected. Iraq was led by Saddaam Hussein, and was involved in several wars, including one with Iran. It attempted to annex Kuwait and was defeated by a coalition led by the United States.

The early 21st century including the early 2000s can be connected. The early 2000s including 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 can be connected. In 2003, the US led an invasion of Iraq, deposed Saddam Hussein, and set up a constitutional government. The late 2000s including 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 can be connected. The US contended with resistance and insurgency, and the group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (known also as ISIS) was formed.

The early 2010s including 2011 and 2012 can be connected. US forces were withdrawn in 2011, and a civil war began led principally by ISIS.

2013 including the first quarter 2013 can be connected. The second quarter 2013 including April 2013, May 2013, and June 2012 can be connected.

The third quarter 2013 can be connected.

July 2013 including 2013 week 27, 2013 week 28, 2013 week 29, 2013 week 30, and 2013 week 31 can be connected.

August 2013 including 2013 week 31 and 2013 week 32 can be connected. September 2013 can be connected. The fourth quarter 2013 including October 2014, November 2013, and December 2013 can be connected.

2014 can be connected. The first quarter 2014 including January 2014 can be connected.

2015 including the first quarter 2015, second quarter 2015, third quarter 2015, and fourth quarter 2015 can be connected.

Late 2010s

The late 2010s including 2016 can be connected.

2016 including the first quarter 2016 and second quarter 2016 can be connected.

The second quarter 2016 including April 2016 and May 2016 can be connected.

May 2016 including 2016 week 19 and 2016 week 20 can be connected.

The third quarter 2016 and fourth quarter 2016 can be connected.

2017 including the first quarter 2017 and second quarter 2017 can be connected. The second quarter 2017 including April 2017 can be connected.

The future including the near future, middle future, and far future can be connected.

Other sociology

Other peoples of the world including major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.

Other nations such as Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso can be connected.

Asiatic peoples

Asiatic peoples including other Middle Eastern peoples, South Asian, Southeast Asian and Oceanic, and Oriental peoples can be connected. Other Middle Eastern peoples are most closely connected, but there was significant contact with South Asian and Southeast Asian peoples beginning in classical and medieval times. South Korea can be connected.

Middle Eastern peoples including Persian and Egyptian peoples can be connected. Turkey can be connected. Persian peoples such as those of Iran can be connected. Egypt can be connected.

South Asian peoples such as those of Bangladesh can be connected. Pakistan can be connected. India can be connected.

Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples including Southeast Asian Island peoples and Mainland Southeast Asian peoples can be connected. Thailand can be connected. Southeast Asian Islands such as those of Indonesia can be connected. The Philippines can be connected. Indonesia can be connected. Mainland Southeast Asian peoples such as those of Vietnam can be connected.

Oriental peoples including Chinese peoples can be connected. Japan can be connected. China can be connected.

Western Civilization including Anglic, Latin, Germanic, and Northeast European peoples can be connected. Italy can be connected.

Anglic peoples including Anglo-American peoples can be connected. The United Kingdom can be connected. Anglo-American peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Latin peoples including Hispanic and Lusitanic peoples can be connected. France can be connected. Hispanic peoples such as those of Mexico can be connected. Lusitanic peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected.

Germanic peoples such as those of Germany can be connected.

Northeast European peoples such as those of Russia can be connected.

African peoples including West African, East African, and Central African peoples can be connected. South Africa can be connected. West African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected. East African peoples such as those of Ethiopia can be connected. Central African peoples such as those of Congo DR can be connected.

American Indian peoples including Middle American Indian, South American Indian, and North Amerioan Indian peoples can be connected. Mexico can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of the southwestern United States can be connected. South American Indian peoples such as those of Brazil can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Communities

Communities such as Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, and Paris can be examined for connections.

Social mechanics

Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be connected.

Social change including particular changes and movements, social change factors, and social change processes can be connected. Social types including industrial societies, agrarian societies, horticultural societies, and hunting and gathering societies can be connected. Social structure including community and regional structure, class structure, institutional structure, cultural structure, and anthropological structure can be connected.

Institutions

Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be connected.

Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be connected. Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected. Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected. Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Culture including conceptual culture and material culture can be connected. Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected.

Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be connected. Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.

Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.


Created 20 Apr 2013 Last updated 8 Jan 2018