Category Archives: SKB

More connections

Since history depends so heavily on sociology, I have been reviewing and rewriting the connections of sociology to institutions. This is not producing much significant progress, because I haven’t been working in the details. A review of the history of peoples of the world has also produced fairly minimal progress. Nations are now connected to weeks of 2017, which is a bit further back than I have analyzed events. I am now free to begin connecting nations to biographies. For Western Civilization, I have felt a need to examine historical roots, which has meant connecting Greece to early antiquity and prehistory. I’ve finally accomplished this, and extended about a dozen other nations to the same periods, so there will be a little bit of catching up involved. I’ve also done a review of social mechanics and religion to Western Civilization, and it’s now time to finish connecting elements of government. I’m taking Asiatic peoples through a review of connections to Western Civilization. Oriental peoples, and India, are still being connected to particular nations. Communities are being connected to biographies, and so are social mechanics as. For Institutions in general, I’ve done a review of peoples, social mechanics, culture, and anthropology. These are now being connected to biographies. Connecting more things to biographies has long been a part of the overall plan, and I’m pleased to finally be making more progress with it.

Aristotle’s “Categories” relates to linguistics and logic, which is not quite my area of focus. I’ve now downloaded his next book; “On Interpretation”which has more of the content I am looking for.


I’ve come close to the limit of what I currently have to say about logic. I had a comment that commended me for putting it out there for free instead of an e-book, but it appeared in my spam comments and the reference was generic. I may want to go that route anyway, including all the tables and proofs of the theorems and equivalences and various other claims. There are more ideas percolating and more extensions I can work ing, but I’ve spent the pent-up steam until I can get more questions or comments. I’ve been active on MathExchange and Google+ and have posted a few more comments and claims there, but so far nobody has really bitten.

I’ve been continuing work on the Knowledge Base. The last time I reviewed progress, I found the major subject of Institutions to be most in need of development. I’ve been going through a review of how peoples of the world apply to them and I’m currently connecting regions of China. Culture shouldn’t be too far behind it. I still need to get this caught up to current weeks, and I also want to broaden the connections to the smaller nations.

I’m also trying to use the eLearning feature on LinkedIn to pick up and renew my work in computer programming, but this isn’t the most urgent priority right now.

Being revolutionary

I have decided, rather than waiting for people to discover my logic, that I need to be more aggressive, or, that is, more assertive, about promoting it. I have occasionally boasted that I am trying to start a logical revolution, or a reformation, or a renaissance, or something.

Following the suggestions that I got at LTUE on networking, I thought to look up conferences on the subject of mathematical logic. The next one remotely accessible will be in May, in Illinois, sponsored by the Association for Symbolic Logic. However, budgetary constraints are likely to put this out of reach. International conferences are even further out of reach.
In the meantime, i am trying to use social media. I renewed my participation on the Stack Exchange network, where I found a couple of questions that had easy answers since I last looked. I don’t want to pester Facebook friends or family on a subject that they have routinely found less than interesting, but I’m considering linking these posts on LinkedIn and Google+.

So, why three values in logic? In classical logic, it has been assumed that statements should be classified as true or false. This is a useful first approximation. However, we live in a world full of ambiguity, uncertainty, lack of information, and conflicting definitions of terms. Questions for the best or only reasonable answers are “I don’t know” and “i can’t tell” are excluded from logical inquiry, and “it depends” are only indirectly addressed. It seems that it ought to be possible to create a three valued symbolic logic. As it turns out, this is easier said than done. There have been several attempts made, most of them with various advantages and deficiencies.

One of the important tools of classical logic is “reductio ad absurdam”, or proof by contradiction. The presence of the third value and the failure of the law of the excluded middle mean that these cannot be directly imported from classical logic. However, it is possible that suitably modified versions can be developed and incorporated into a scheme of natural deduction.

In development of the knowledge Base, I got as far as a review of how other history applies to prehistory. Most of what is now known about prehistory has been discovered in modern times, and I am going through a review of how peoples of the world are applied to modern history. Currently, this is at cities of India. The 19th century is being connected to current events of 2018. For the 20th century, I am doing a review of how early prehistory applies. The late 20th century is being connected to weeks of 2018. The early 21st century is being connected to material culture. 2017 and the fourth quarter 2017 are being connected to weeks of 2018. I am trying to pick out notable developments in prehistory, but this requires that the weeks of 2018 be examined in more detail.


I’ve been out of town for a few days for a family funeral, so I haven’t followed up on my “Learned Professors” post.

As a result of my studies in logic, I have become convinced that the whole field of formal logic has stagnated since the 1920s. Although classical two-valued Aristotelian logic is widespread and has all kinds of applications from applications from electronics to computer science, there has been comparatively little progress in non-classical logic. This is largely because non-classical logics as they have developed have been either excessively cumbersome or seriously incomplete.
In the 19th century, George Boole pioneered the use of mathematics to represent the truth of mathematical statements. The methods he used were cumbersome and applied largely to classes of things. His logic was enormously simplified by the introduction of a fairly simple concept: The use of the inclusive “or”. Statements and arguments could be translated into mathematical symbolism, manipulated by mathematical methods, and reinterpreted as statements that were equally valid and equally correct, (or incorrect). Reasoning that was difficult or complex when expressed verbally could be simplified. This works well when applied to classical Aristotelian two valued logic. There is excellent agreement between the methods of symbolic logic and those of traditional logic.

However, it has long been recognized that classical Aristotelian logic has some severe limitations. In particular, the insistence that statements must be true or false, with no middle ground, fails to deal with the complexity of the real world, where ambiguity, uncertainty, lack of information, and conflicting definitions abound. It has worked best in mathematics, where objects can be defined without regard to whether they exist in nature. The perfect certainty of mathematics is entirely artificial.
There have been various attempts to extend logic and mathematical reasoning to the realm of the ambiguous and uncertain. These have not worked so well. In future posts, I will review a few of these.

More generally, in dealing with the knowledge base, I’ve been pushing the development of world history. This depends heavily the area I have called sociology. I’ve completed a pass through a historical review. Although I would like to work backward through weeks of 2016, I a setting this aside in favor of reviewing the roots of sociology in institutions and culture. History depends in particular on peoples of the world, and for these I am going through a summary review of history. This is mostly showing me what gaps still remain: Central Asia, Balkan and Scandinavian peoples, and Southern African peoples haven’t yet been fully treated. I am linking nations to particular weeks of 2017, to ease things when I get back to them. For Western Civilization, I have finished connecting cities as far as they have developed, reviewed the connections with other peoples, and I am now going through a review of how the area I call social mechanics applies. I am working on extending the connections of Balkan peoples to other peoples of the world, and getting notes on the history of Greece back through antiquity and prehistory. These are rather slow going.

Picking Up

I’ve had nothing significant to report for the past couple of months. I’ve been doing some review of history, trying to get a more coherent narrative, but nothing very exciting. I’ve recently gone back to current events and I’m picking up the analysis from where I left off in about April.

I’ve also reactivated my account of Goodreads and listed a few hundred of the books I’ve read. I don’t yet have many reviews, but I do have some ratings. There are quite a few series where I’ve so far only listed the first. I expect to add more reviews and more books as I go along.

Like an Egyptian

I got to the point of pulling back the history of Thailand through the 16th century, and decided I had enough for the time being, so I went back to early prehistory.
This time, I’ve managed to pull the history of Egypt the rest of the way through antiquity and late prehistory. This gives me a better hold on other prehistory and antiquity.

So far, so good.

So, Donald Trump is now officially the 45th President of the United States. So far, he’s not doing too badly. Some of his Cabinet nominees have already been approved by Congress, and he seems to be appointing sober, responsible people. Some of his opponents have been showing what public-spirited, high-minded statesmen they are (not) by sponsoring riots, breaking windows, and setting fire to limos in Washington DC, and promising more of the same for the next four years.


For late classical times, I have done some connecting of religion, government, and economics. I am developing some background for the early 19th century. I’ve taken the history of Turkey back into the time of the Roman Empire, and have begun to work Congo back through the 16th century. Although the late medieval and 16th century history of Congo is not particularly prominent, this is carrying Eastern Africa along with it, and Eastern Africa is important. I have biography connected back to the 1st century CE, and for the next little while, will be connecting social foundations to 20-year periods of early modern history.

Persians and Anatolians

I have been working on extending the background of the early 19th century through modern history; the history of Persia through the era of the Parthian empire back to the Seleucids and Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Achamaenid Persian empire; and the history of Turkey back through Byzantine times. I’ve also been extending biography to centuries of late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history.
In the process, I’ve been adding the notes I had previously made on early Egyptian Islamic history to the appropriate centuries of the early medieval period, and I like what I am seeing. This is how it is supposed to work. As each nation gets added in, I can begin to see the pattern of expansion, decline, and succession of peoples.

Mostly Germany

In my work on the SKB, I have a survey of the late 2nd millennium BC which now has a better outline of the religions of the period. I’ve been connecting the centuries of this period to other history. I now have a more complete skeleton for studies of the historiography of the period, and I am connecting the early mid 19th century.

I’ve worked Germany back to about the 12th century BC. This presents something of a problem, because evidence indicates that Germanic tribes were expanding their territory southward during pre-Roman times, and I have little information about the other peoples who may have inhabited the area. I presume these were Celtic peoples, but I don’t know. This will require more details of German archaeology. One of the problems with being a generalist is that there isn’t time to go into all the fascinating details. Next on the list is Iran, and in company with it, the Middle East in general. So far, I have this back to the time of the Parthian empire.

I’ve been connecting areas of anthropology to particular centuries, and in the current pass, I’ve connected demography as far back as the late 2nd millennium BC. Next on the list is connecting biography. I now have a few prominent biographical figures for each 20-year period of modern history listed, and I am working back into centuries of classical and medieval history.