Category Archives: SKB

Backtrack

I got to about the 27th century BC and decided that I wanted to backtrack to go through periods of prehistory: Trying to do all the possible connections was just too tedious. But I have made some progress in other areas.

For one, I have finished a review of how other sociology applies to Asiatic peoples, and have begin reviewing religion. For another, I have finally finished connecting biographies to social mechanics, and I am now in a position to consider why the people selected for the biographies were important. For a third, I have finished reviewing connecting nations and cities to culture, and done a review of how peoples are applied. I am now in the process of reviewing how institutions are applied to culture.

Bronze Age

The fourth millennium BC includes the beginning of Bronze age civilization and the beginnings of recorded, written history. At my present stage of development, this is largely concentrated on Egyptian civilization and culture, but I do have references to developing civilizations in Pakistan and China.

At this point, I am shifting to antiquity. Antiquity has much finer subdivisions than prehistory does. The subdivisions of Antiquity are at the level of individual centuries. This is not quite fine enough to work with a conventional narrative history, but summaries of the major peoples and historical figures are possible. Beginning in the early 3rd millennium BC, I can examine the 30th century BC.

Other history can be used to consider the 30th century BC. I have added a few comments about sources. In the 19th century and 20th century, written history has been supplemented by archaeology. I still have a focus on Egypt and the first dynasty. Harappan civilization was developing in Pakistan and India, but since the writing has not been deciphered and translated, its history is not well known.

18th century Anglic history

In the late 18th century from 1781 to 1800, the British recognized American independence, expanded the East India Company holdings in India and began settlement of Australia. The United States established an improved system of government under its Constitution. The French Revolution was important in Europe.

In the early 19th century from 1801-1820, George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son reigned as regent in his stead in the period known as the Regency. Britain was involved in the Napoleonic wars. In the United States, the presidencies of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe can be connected. The War of 1812 occurred. The New York city street grid was expanded to cover all of Manhattan island. An attempted invasion of Canada by the United States in the war of 1812 was defeated.

In the early mid 19th century from 1821-1840 in the United Kingdom, George IV and William IV ruled, slavery was abolished, there was electoral reform in 1832, and Victoria ascended to the throne in 1837. In the United States, the presidencies of Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Jackson, and Van Buren can be connected. New York City became connected to the agricultural region of the United States with completion of the Erie Canal. The British governed Canada and united the various provinces into a single domain in 1840.

Revolution

Specifically, the late mid 18th century from 1761-1780 has most of the American Revolution. While losing most of the American colonies, the British consolidated their rule over Canada and expanded their dominions in India.

I have finished a rewrite of the middle prehistory of institutions. I still don’t have the specific detail I would like, but it will come eventually.

Personal studies have gone through a rewrite of their connections to science. The next stage is to further connect personal studies to Sociology. The remaining medium and smaller countries and cities will be better connected to biographies and to contributions in psychology and the human body.

More history

For the early mid 18th century, from 1721-1740, I have a particular interest in British history, which includes the reign of George I. In North America, this included King George’s War, the third of the French and Indian wars. There were other things going on in Europe which had an influence on the Americas, which I will probably discuss more on the next pass through the 18th century.

For the mid 18th century from 1741-1960, I have an interest in British history, which included the reign of George II. The Seven years war with France began. In North America, this was the fourth of the series of the French and Indian Wars. Other European developments also affected the Americas.

When you’re Hot

I normally do at most one post per day, but when you’re hot, you’re hot. (Or, perhaps, when you live in Phoenix, you’re hot…) British peoples were unified as the United Kingdom under Queen Anne. In North America, the second of the French and Indian Wars, Queen Anne’s War, between French and British colonists took place. The War of the Spanish Succession was another event in early 18th century Europe.

I have rewritten the early prehistory of Institutions; not that I really have more information about it, but because there are more connections to be considered. This was an area of much speculation based on insufficient data in the early part of this century, and although more evidence has been uncovered, it appears that there is still more speculation than established fact.

More connections

Since history depends so heavily on sociology, I have been reviewing and rewriting the connections of sociology to institutions. This is not producing much significant progress, because I haven’t been working in the details. A review of the history of peoples of the world has also produced fairly minimal progress. Nations are now connected to weeks of 2017, which is a bit further back than I have analyzed events. I am now free to begin connecting nations to biographies. For Western Civilization, I have felt a need to examine historical roots, which has meant connecting Greece to early antiquity and prehistory. I’ve finally accomplished this, and extended about a dozen other nations to the same periods, so there will be a little bit of catching up involved. I’ve also done a review of social mechanics and religion to Western Civilization, and it’s now time to finish connecting elements of government. I’m taking Asiatic peoples through a review of connections to Western Civilization. Oriental peoples, and India, are still being connected to particular nations. Communities are being connected to biographies, and so are social mechanics as. For Institutions in general, I’ve done a review of peoples, social mechanics, culture, and anthropology. These are now being connected to biographies. Connecting more things to biographies has long been a part of the overall plan, and I’m pleased to finally be making more progress with it.

Aristotle’s “Categories” relates to linguistics and logic, which is not quite my area of focus. I’ve now downloaded his next book; “On Interpretation”which has more of the content I am looking for.

Switching

I’ve come close to the limit of what I currently have to say about logic. I had a comment that commended me for putting it out there for free instead of an e-book, but it appeared in my spam comments and the reference was generic. I may want to go that route anyway, including all the tables and proofs of the theorems and equivalences and various other claims. There are more ideas percolating and more extensions I can work ing, but I’ve spent the pent-up steam until I can get more questions or comments. I’ve been active on MathExchange and Google+ and have posted a few more comments and claims there, but so far nobody has really bitten.

I’ve been continuing work on the Knowledge Base. The last time I reviewed progress, I found the major subject of Institutions to be most in need of development. I’ve been going through a review of how peoples of the world apply to them and I’m currently connecting regions of China. Culture shouldn’t be too far behind it. I still need to get this caught up to current weeks, and I also want to broaden the connections to the smaller nations.

I’m also trying to use the eLearning feature on LinkedIn to pick up and renew my work in computer programming, but this isn’t the most urgent priority right now.

Being revolutionary

I have decided, rather than waiting for people to discover my logic, that I need to be more aggressive, or, that is, more assertive, about promoting it. I have occasionally boasted that I am trying to start a logical revolution, or a reformation, or a renaissance, or something.

Following the suggestions that I got at LTUE on networking, I thought to look up conferences on the subject of mathematical logic. The next one remotely accessible will be in May, in Illinois, sponsored by the Association for Symbolic Logic. However, budgetary constraints are likely to put this out of reach. International conferences are even further out of reach.
In the meantime, i am trying to use social media. I renewed my participation on the Stack Exchange network, where I found a couple of questions that had easy answers since I last looked. I don’t want to pester Facebook friends or family on a subject that they have routinely found less than interesting, but I’m considering linking these posts on LinkedIn and Google+.

So, why three values in logic? In classical logic, it has been assumed that statements should be classified as true or false. This is a useful first approximation. However, we live in a world full of ambiguity, uncertainty, lack of information, and conflicting definitions of terms. Questions for the best or only reasonable answers are “I don’t know” and “i can’t tell” are excluded from logical inquiry, and “it depends” are only indirectly addressed. It seems that it ought to be possible to create a three valued symbolic logic. As it turns out, this is easier said than done. There have been several attempts made, most of them with various advantages and deficiencies.

One of the important tools of classical logic is “reductio ad absurdam”, or proof by contradiction. The presence of the third value and the failure of the law of the excluded middle mean that these cannot be directly imported from classical logic. However, it is possible that suitably modified versions can be developed and incorporated into a scheme of natural deduction.

In development of the knowledge Base, I got as far as a review of how other history applies to prehistory. Most of what is now known about prehistory has been discovered in modern times, and I am going through a review of how peoples of the world are applied to modern history. Currently, this is at cities of India. The 19th century is being connected to current events of 2018. For the 20th century, I am doing a review of how early prehistory applies. The late 20th century is being connected to weeks of 2018. The early 21st century is being connected to material culture. 2017 and the fourth quarter 2017 are being connected to weeks of 2018. I am trying to pick out notable developments in prehistory, but this requires that the weeks of 2018 be examined in more detail.

Revolutionary

I’ve been out of town for a few days for a family funeral, so I haven’t followed up on my “Learned Professors” post.

As a result of my studies in logic, I have become convinced that the whole field of formal logic has stagnated since the 1920s. Although classical two-valued Aristotelian logic is widespread and has all kinds of applications from applications from electronics to computer science, there has been comparatively little progress in non-classical logic. This is largely because non-classical logics as they have developed have been either excessively cumbersome or seriously incomplete.
In the 19th century, George Boole pioneered the use of mathematics to represent the truth of mathematical statements. The methods he used were cumbersome and applied largely to classes of things. His logic was enormously simplified by the introduction of a fairly simple concept: The use of the inclusive “or”. Statements and arguments could be translated into mathematical symbolism, manipulated by mathematical methods, and reinterpreted as statements that were equally valid and equally correct, (or incorrect). Reasoning that was difficult or complex when expressed verbally could be simplified. This works well when applied to classical Aristotelian two valued logic. There is excellent agreement between the methods of symbolic logic and those of traditional logic.

However, it has long been recognized that classical Aristotelian logic has some severe limitations. In particular, the insistence that statements must be true or false, with no middle ground, fails to deal with the complexity of the real world, where ambiguity, uncertainty, lack of information, and conflicting definitions abound. It has worked best in mathematics, where objects can be defined without regard to whether they exist in nature. The perfect certainty of mathematics is entirely artificial.
There have been various attempts to extend logic and mathematical reasoning to the realm of the ambiguous and uncertain. These have not worked so well. In future posts, I will review a few of these.

More generally, in dealing with the knowledge base, I’ve been pushing the development of world history. This depends heavily the area I have called sociology. I’ve completed a pass through a historical review. Although I would like to work backward through weeks of 2016, I a setting this aside in favor of reviewing the roots of sociology in institutions and culture. History depends in particular on peoples of the world, and for these I am going through a summary review of history. This is mostly showing me what gaps still remain: Central Asia, Balkan and Scandinavian peoples, and Southern African peoples haven’t yet been fully treated. I am linking nations to particular weeks of 2017, to ease things when I get back to them. For Western Civilization, I have finished connecting cities as far as they have developed, reviewed the connections with other peoples, and I am now going through a review of how the area I call social mechanics applies. I am working on extending the connections of Balkan peoples to other peoples of the world, and getting notes on the history of Greece back through antiquity and prehistory. These are rather slow going.