Bronze Age

The fourth millennium BC includes the beginning of Bronze age civilization and the beginnings of recorded, written history. At my present stage of development, this is largely concentrated on Egyptian civilization and culture, but I do have references to developing civilizations in Pakistan and China.

At this point, I am shifting to antiquity. Antiquity has much finer subdivisions than prehistory does. The subdivisions of Antiquity are at the level of individual centuries. This is not quite fine enough to work with a conventional narrative history, but summaries of the major peoples and historical figures are possible. Beginning in the early 3rd millennium BC, I can examine the 30th century BC.

Other history can be used to consider the 30th century BC. I have added a few comments about sources. In the 19th century and 20th century, written history has been supplemented by archaeology. I still have a focus on Egypt and the first dynasty. Harappan civilization was developing in Pakistan and India, but since the writing has not been deciphered and translated, its history is not well known.

Late prehistory

I don’t really have a great deal to add for the 8th millennium BC, 7th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC, or 5th millennium BC, except that there was increasing evidence of Neolithic settlements in various places around the world. I have included a few more references to Egyptian developments and archaeology. One of my continuing goals for the knowledge base is better discussion of archaeology and its history. So far, I only have a few scattered notes.

For Asiatic peoples, I have finished a review of their connections to other peoples of the world. Western Civilization is being connected to biographies, and their is still some ways to go. For the history of institutions, I have completed a review of the early 3rd millennium BC.

Agricultural revolution

In the 2nd decamillennium BP, I take note of developments in Egypt, which include several successive cultures with various degrees of transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture. There were similar developments in Iran and Anatolia. From here on, I will be concentrating on developments of Egypt, although this was not necessarily the highest or most advanced civilization: It was rivaled by Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian peoples were more important anciently than the size of modern Iraq would indicate, so it will take some time before these are developed to their proper place in this period. There were also some settlements in India and in China and Japan. There are identified cultures in France. So far I have little information on Africa or the Americas. A new series of social developments, for which I used the term the agricultural revolution, began. During this period, peoples and cultures I identify as horticultural, with settled farming, began to appear. Whether agriculture was invented independently in several cultures about the same time or whether it was an idea that spread rapidly does not appear clear from the evidence now available.

For Western Civilization, I have completed a review of anthropology. For some time, I have been anticipating making connections to biographies. I have now reached the point where I can begin to do this.

Oh, the French

For the 3rd decamillennium BP, I went back to review what references there were for France. There were quite a few. I find in my various readings that a great deal of what is thought about middle prehistory is derived from the work of French prehistorians and archaeologists, and has been rather heavily Eurocentric. That is starting to change, but many of the named cultures of this period have French names.

Crawling through middle Prehistory

For late mid Pleistocene prehistory, I am short on notes for developments in Africa, Asia, and Europe. It is believed that modern humans migrated from Africa and began to populate the world, but the references I have gathered don’t describe this process well.

The next period, the 5th decamillennium BP, also belongs to late Pleistocene prehistory, but I have placed in middle prehistory. Decamillennium is too a word. I made it up myself, from perfectly respectable roots; it’s less cumbersome to write ‘the 5th decamillennium BP’ than it is ‘the period from 50,000 years before present to 40,000 years before present’ over and over. I don’t yet have many references to events of this period.

The next period, the 4th decamillennium BP, also belongs to the late Pleistocene prehistory. It is thought that Neanderthal man began to disappear in this period, and were replaced by modern humans. The maximum extent of the last ice age is thought to have been approximately in this period.

For Anthropology, I have finished making connections to nations as far as they have developed and will begin making connections to cities smaller than Singapore. For Personal studies, I have finished making connections to cities larger than Hong Kong, and have begin connecting to nations. For Science, I have finished reviewing the connections to Anthropology. I am beginning to connect biographies. This is somewhat out of order according to my current development scheme, but it fits with what the scheme should have been.

More Early Prehistory

Sometimes I find that including more references and information creates more confusion.
For the period I am calling mid Pleistocene prehistory, in Africa I am finding references to anatomically modern man. The middle East has a few unspecified references to tools, and to some Neanderthals. South Asia has a references to Soanian culture, which is identified more with stones than bones. The Orient and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples have references to Homo erectus in the early period. Europe chiefly has references to Neanderthals. Eventually, I will have to broaden the connections to include more nations, subdivide the period, and find better references to clarify developments of this period. In the meantime, stone age developments and hunting and gathering peoples are chiefly applicable. There are traces of the origins of social institutions, but I consider them more speculative than substantial, and I lack good references. Pretty much the same goes for culture.

Back to the Beginning

I abruptly decided that I was tired of the 19th century, and to go back to prehistory.

Pliocene prehistory is focused on the earliest origins of humanity, as revealed by investigation of skeletal remains by archaeologists, primarily of the 20th century. These are limited to Africa, which is still being connected. Stone age developments are also being considered. The origins of the institutions ought to be traced, but the evidence is still unclear. Most of the evidence consists of stone tools and skeletal remains, or what I call “stones and bones”.

Early Pleistocene prehistory likewise is limited to principally the 19th century, and mostly limited to Africa. along with stone age developments and institutional origins. The evidence is still mostly stones and bones.

Early mid Pleistocene prehistory. This began to be studied in the 19th century, and is better known in the 20th century. Remains of are found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. This is still mostly concerned with stone age developments and hunting and gathering society. The role of institutions is not yet clear. Evidence is still mostly stones and bones. I have not yet examined culture enough to distinguish the various types of stone industries, but this important in the archaeology of this period. The predominant species of this period is believed to be homo erectus.

For Western Civilization, I have made connections to human geography as far as it has been developed.
The history of institutions through middle prehistory has been rewritten. Science has also been connected to details of human geography as far as they are developed.

Slow progress

One of the reasons my review of history is going so slowly is that I am taking the time to expand the links of other connected areas.

Although my review of the mid 19th century from 1841-1860 is principally showing up Britain’s involvement in the Crimean war and the United States in the Mexican war, there are still a lot of international developments I have set aside for now.

In the major area of culture, specifically the sociology of culture, I have completed the connection with cities and I will be doing a review of how various peoples of the world are connected to culture.

18th century Anglic history

In the late 18th century from 1781 to 1800, the British recognized American independence, expanded the East India Company holdings in India and began settlement of Australia. The United States established an improved system of government under its Constitution. The French Revolution was important in Europe.

In the early 19th century from 1801-1820, George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son reigned as regent in his stead in the period known as the Regency. Britain was involved in the Napoleonic wars. In the United States, the presidencies of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe can be connected. The War of 1812 occurred. The New York city street grid was expanded to cover all of Manhattan island. An attempted invasion of Canada by the United States in the war of 1812 was defeated.

In the early mid 19th century from 1821-1840 in the United Kingdom, George IV and William IV ruled, slavery was abolished, there was electoral reform in 1832, and Victoria ascended to the throne in 1837. In the United States, the presidencies of Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Jackson, and Van Buren can be connected. New York City became connected to the agricultural region of the United States with completion of the Erie Canal. The British governed Canada and united the various provinces into a single domain in 1840.

Revolution

Specifically, the late mid 18th century from 1761-1780 has most of the American Revolution. While losing most of the American colonies, the British consolidated their rule over Canada and expanded their dominions in India.

I have finished a rewrite of the middle prehistory of institutions. I still don’t have the specific detail I would like, but it will come eventually.

Personal studies have gone through a rewrite of their connections to science. The next stage is to further connect personal studies to Sociology. The remaining medium and smaller countries and cities will be better connected to biographies and to contributions in psychology and the human body.