Late Medieval History

Late medieval history includes the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.

France developed into an important European kingdom. There were early explorations in what is now Canada. Over a period of time, Spain was reconquered by Christians. Colombia was reached by the Spanish in 1499. Brazil was encountered by Pedro Álvares Cabral and claimed on behalf of the Portuguese Empire 22 April 1500. Germany was loosely ruled by the Holy Roman Empire. The Dukes of Burgundy and the Habsburg kings began to rule in the area of the Netherlands. What is now Belgium was loosely ruled by French and Holy Roman emperors. Russia was invaded and conquered by the Mongols. The Kingdom of Poland was founded. Hungary was an important Medieval European kingdom and resisted conquest by the Mongols. Romania was divided into Wallachia, Transylvania, and Moldavia, usually under different rulers. Greece was a part of the Byzantine empire, but in the 15th century came under Ottoman rule.

Egypt was part of various Islamic states. The Seljuq Turks, Khwarezmid empire, Mongol invasions, and Timurid dynasty dominated Persia. The Seljuq Turks began to occupy Turkey, although Turkish rule disintegrated with the Mongol invasions. Algeria was dominated and ruled by Muslims. Morocco was ruled by Berber Muslim dynasties. Most of what is now Arabia was under the rule of the Sharifate of Mecca, which was largely under control of the Fatamids of Egypt. Yemen was under Islamic rule.

11th century CE

This includes events of the early 1000s, early mid 1000s, mid 1000s, late mid 1000s, and late 1000s.

12th century CE

This includes events of the early 1100s, early mid 1100s, mid 1100s, late mid 1100s, and late 1100s.

13th century CE

This includes events of the early 1200s, early mid 1200s, mid 1200s, late mid 1200s, and late 1200s.

14th century CE

This includes events of the early 1300s, early mid 1300s, mid 1300s, late mid 1300s, and late 1300s.

15th century CE

This includes events of the early 1400s, early mid 1400s, mid 1400s, late mid 1400s, and late 1400s.

Other History

Earlier periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, and other periods of classical and medieval history may be used to give background information about late medieval history.

The analysis and study of this period in modern history and the future can also be connected.

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Sociology including communities and social mechanics can be used to examine late medieval history. Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family studies can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.


Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century Ce, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.

Particular religions

Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asian religion, pagan religion, and secularism can be connected.

Abrahamic religion

Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected.

Christianity including Catholicism and Orthodoxy can be connected. Early Christianity had been supplanted, and Protestantism and Mormonism had not yet originated. Catholicism can be connected. Orthodoxy can be connected.

Islam can be connected. Judaism can be connected.

Asiatic religion

Asian religion including Indian religion, East Asian religion, and Persian religion can be connected.

Indian religion including Jainism can be connected. Buddhism can be connected. Hinduism can be connected. Sikhism can be connected. Sikhism originated during his period.

East Asian religion including Taoism, Japanese religion, and Korean religion can be connected. Confucianism can be connected.

Persian religion including Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and Mithraism can be connected.

Pagan religion

Pagan religion including European pagan, Asian pagan, African pagan, and American Indian pagan religion can be connected. Neopagan religion had not yet developed.

European pagan religion can be connected. Asian pagan religion can be connected. African pagan religion can be connected. American Indian religion can be connected.

Secularism can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.


Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.

Particular governments

Particular governments including international government, national government, and local government can be connected.

International government including colonial empires, and traditional empires can be connected. Modern compacts had not yet developed. National government can be connected. Local government can be connected.

Government activity

Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected.

State relations including warfare, diplomacy, and intelligence can be connected. Administration including security, public works and lands, welfare, and taxation can be connected. Succession including election, appointment, inheritance, and seizure can be connected.

Government structure including judicial systems and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Forms of government can be connected. Executive systems can be connected. Legislative systems can be connected.

Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.


Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.

Economic systems including networks, and firms can be connected. Economic system behavior can be connected. Economic system types can be connected.

Industries including commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Social and medical services including institutional services, personal and social services, and recreation and entertainment industries can be connected.

Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.


School systems including secondary education, and primary education can be connected. Higher education can be connected.

Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.


Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.

Behavioral culture

Cultural events such as disasters, expeditions, awards, and gatherings can be connected. Holidays can be connected.

Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Miscellanous artifacts including sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.


Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be connected.

Human geography

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Human origins can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human dispersion can be connected.


Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the 11th century CE, 12th century CE, 13th century CE, 14th century CE, and 15th century CE.


Biography can be connected.


Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

Human form and appearance can be connected. Disease can be connected. Human life cycle can be connected. Human body functions can be connected. Body systems can be connected.


Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the 11th century, 12th century, 13th century, 14th century, and 15th century.


Biology including biophistory, ecology, systematics and organism biology can be connected. Cell biology was not yet known. Molecular biology had not yet developed.

Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected.

Earth science

Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected.

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.


Astronomy including stellar astronomy and local astronomy can be connected. Galactic astronomy had not yet been developed.

Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.


Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected.

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.


Physics including the structure of matter, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected. Quantum physics had not yet developed. Relativity had not yet developed.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected.

Created 5 Mar 2013 Last updated 9 Oct 2017