Late 20th Century

The late 20th century is divided into 5 year periods of the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

The United States was led by Ronald Reagan, George HW Bush, and Bill Clinton.

Social and political unrest in Italy continued. France was involved in various European affairs. Canada severed its last political ties with the UK, and there was a seccession movement in French-speaking Quebec.Cultural and linguistic tensions arose in Belgium, with multiple government reforms attempting to resolve them. In Spain, Spain was ruled by Francisco Franco. After his death, the monarchy was restored under Juan Carlos. Mexico was presided over by Jose Lopez Portillo, Miguel de la Madrid, Carlos Salinas, Ernesto Zedillo, and Vicente Fox. The Guatemalan civil war came to an end in 1996. Antonio Guzman Fernandez, Salvador Jorge Blanco, Joaquin Balaguer, and Leonel Fernandez occupied the Pesidency of the Dominican Republic. Revolutionary movements and the illegal drug trade occupied Colombia. The collapse of oil prices in Venezuela resulted in foreign debt, currency devaluation, and severe economic problems. Government corruption, rioting, attempted coups, and the impeachment of the President were political problems. Peru engaged in conflicts with Ecuador and there was conflict between the government under the leadership of Alberto Fujumori and terrorist groups. In Chile, Augusto Pinochet was succeeded by other presidents. Argentina attempted to occupy the Falkland Islands but was defeated by the British. In Brazil, Military rule ended and civilian rule was restored.

Germany was reunified following the collapse of the USSR and end of the Cold War. The Netherlands became a leader of social change in areas such as environmentalism, sexuality, and women's rights. The USSR broke up, with Russia as the largest piece. Ukraine became independent of the USSR. The Communist government of Poland fell. The Communist government of Hungary fell in 1989 and there was a succession of new governments. The Communist government of Romania was overthrown. Sweden joined the European Union in 1995.

Egypt was ruled by Hosni Mubarak. An insurgency of Kurdish rebels began in 1984. The Islamic republic of Iran was prominent in international affairs. There was Civil war in Algeria from 1991. Hassan II continued to rule Morocco, until his death in 1999. He was succeeded by his son Mohammed VI. Bourguiba of Tunisia was overthrown in 1987 by Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Saudia Arabia became influential from its oil sales and allied with the United States in a Persian gulf war. Hafez al-Assad continued to rule Syria, and in 2000 was succeded by his son Bashar al-Hassad.

In India, Indira Gandhi and her son were assassinated. India began to liberalize economically. In Pakistan, there was political instability and conflict with India. In Bangladesh, Rule alternated between two major parties. Nepal was ruled by a parliamentary monarchy.

Uzbekistan became independent of the USSR. Kazakhstan gained independence with the breakup of the USSR.

China began to liberalize economically, but not politically in the post-Mao era. Taiwan adopted democratic reforms and Kuomintang rule ended in 2000. Japan's economic growth slowed. South Korea grew economically in spite of the autocratic rule of Chun Doo-hwan.In 1990 there was a famine in North Korea.

Vietnam began implementing market-oriented reforms. The succession of military dictators and unstable government in Thailand continued. There were various uprisings and protests and a change in the military governmentof Burma. Malaysia grew and developed economically. A combination of various interests in Cambodia resulted in some instability of government. Suharto was president of Indonesia, but was deposed. In the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos was forced from office and followed by Corazon Aquino, Fidel Ramos, and Joseph Estrada. The Democratic Republic of Madagascar gave way to the third Republic in 1992.

Ethiopia abandoned communism. Tanzania's consitution was amended to allow multiple political parties. Daniel Arap Moi ruled Kenya. Various governments succeeded Idi Amin in Uganda. Hundreds of thousands were killed in the Rwandan genocide in 1994. A bloodless military coup in 1989 established a new government in Sudan under Omar al-Bashir. In Chad there was civil war and disturbance from neighboring Sudan.

Nigeria suffered political instability. Jerry John Rawlings was the predominant political figure in Ghana. In Ivory Coast, Boigny died in 1993 and was succeeded by Henry Konan Bedie. Laurent Gbagbo was then elected President. In Benin, Mathias Kerekou renounced Marxism about the 1990s. He lost office in 1991 but was re-elected in 1996. Niger suffered considerable political instability. Upper Volta was renamed Burkina Faso and suffered some political instability.

Zaire's name was changed back to the Democratic Republic of Congo. Angola suffered a civil war.

A post-aparteid government was established in South Africa. Mozambique was led by a Marxist government, but there was civil war until Samora Machel was killed in an aircraft accident and his successor abandoned Marxism. Malawi established a multi-party democracy. Zambia established a multi-party democracy.

Early 1980s

This includes events from 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, and 1985. This includes events such as the Soviet-Afghan War, the Iran-Iraq war, and the 1982 war in Lebanon.

Late 1980s

This includes events of 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, and 1990. This was noted for the dissolution of the Warsaw pact, and the collapse of various communist states.

Early 1990s

This includes events of 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. This was noted for the Persian Gulf war, the breakup of the USSR and Yugoslavia, and Rwanda's genocide.

Late 1990s

This includes events of 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000. This was noted for the Chechen war and the Kosovo war.

Other history

Other periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history; other modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and other periods of the 20th century; and the future can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.


Sociology can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s. Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be applied. Communities and social mechanics can be connected.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Behavioral culture

Cultural events including holidays, disasters, expeditions, awards, gatherings can be connected. Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Miscellaneous artifacts including sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.


Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 199s, and late 1990s.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Human geography

Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, Afican geograpny, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life, and environmental effects can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects on people can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Human dispersion can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human origins can be connected. More specimens classified as homo habilis and homo erectus were found in Africa in this period.


Demogaphy including population change, population size and structure, migration, mortality and moribidity, and birth and fertility can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.


Biography can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.


Psychology including social psychology, personality, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be used to examine th early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

The human body including human form and appearance, human disease, humanlife cycle, body functions, and body systems can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Human form and appearance can be connected. Human disease can be connected. Human life cycle can be connected. Body functions can be connected. Body systems can be connected.


Science including biology, earth science, astronmy, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s.


Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected. Cell biology including types, behavior, and structure can be connected. Molecular biology including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics can be connected.

Earth science

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.


Galactic astronomy including cosmology, galactic types, and galactography can be connected. Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.


Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements canb e connected.


Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Quantum physics can be connected. Relativity including general relativity and special relativity can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Themodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected.

Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, and rigid body mechanics can be connected. Particle mechanics including particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.

Created 25 Feb 2013 Last updated 31 Oct 2017