Mid 20th Century

This includes the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

The US entered World War II and emerged undamaged and victorious as one of two superpowers. It then engaged in a "Cold War" with the USSR. France was defeated and divided in World War II, but reunited afterwards under the Fourth Republic. Spain was ruled by Francisco Franco and was neutral in World War II. Manuel Avila, Miguel Aleman, Adolfo Ruiz, and Adolfo Lopez presided over Mexico. Colombia was affected by World War II, after which a period of civil strife known as "La Violencia" occured. There were multiple elections, coups, and changes of government in Venezuela. There were various governments and political parties in Peru. Italy was allied with Germany and defeated in World War II, but began to recover under liberal policies administered by the victors. Germany was defeated in World War II and divided into East and West Gemany during the Cold War. The Netherlands were invaded and defeated by Germany during World War II, and allied with the United States in the Cold War afterwards. The USSR was invaded by Germany in World War II, but after Germany was defeated, it emerged as a second superpower and led the Soviet bloc of nations in the Cold war.

In Egypt, a revolution in 1952 let to a nationalist military government under Nasser. Turkey joined the Allies in the late stages of World War II and subsequently was allied with the US. The Pahlavis ruled Persia. Algeria was considered a department of France during WW II. An independence movement from the French began about 1954. Saudi Arabia began to prosper from the sale of oil.

India gained independence. Pakistan was granted independence in 1947. Bangladesh was created as part of Pakistan, East Pakistan, in 1947. King Tribhuvan of Nepal gained political power when the Rana dynasty of Prime Ministers lost power, and ruled until 1955 when he was succeeded by Bihendra.

Communists won the civil war in China and established the People' Republic of China. Japan was defeated in World War II and occupied by the US. The emperor renounced a claim of divinity and all political power, and a parliamentary democracy was established. Korea was at first occupied by Japan, but was divided into North Korea and South Korea following the Korean war.

Vietnam was invaded by Japan in WW II. Following the war, the French were defeated and the country was divided between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Thailand was nominally an ally of Japan in World War II, but there was a resistance movement and the nation allied with the US afterwards. Burma was invaded by Japan in World War II, but was granted independence by Britain following the end of the war. Malaya was invded by the Japanese in World War II, and afterwards reorganized in 1946 as the Malayan Union and in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya. The major part became independent as Malaya in 1957. Indonesia gained its political independence. The Philippines were invaded and occupied by Japan in World War II, but reoccupied by the US, and shortly thereafter (in 1946) granted independence.

Nigeria gained increasing self government from Britain and independence in 1960. Ghana declared independence from Britain in 1957. Niger was granted independence from France in 1958. Upper Volta was granted independence in 1960. Tanganyika and Zanzibar were ruled by the British. Kenya was ruled by the British. It gained independence in 1960. Congo DR gained independence in 1960. Angola was ruled as a colony of Portugal. The British ruled South Africa as a colony. Mozambique was ruled as a colony of Portugal. Nyasaland was under British rule and was associated with Rhodesia as part of British Central Africa. Zambia was governed by the British as Northern Rhodesia.

Early 1940s

This will include events of 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, and 1945.

Late 1940s

This will include events of 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, and 1950.

Early 1950s

This will include events of 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, and 1955.

Late 1950s

This will include events of 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, and 1960.

Other history

Other periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history, other modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, and other 20th century; and the future can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.


Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected. Communities and social mechanics can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and family can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s and late 1950s.


Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religous practice, and religious belief can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Particular religions

Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asian religion, pagan religion, and secularism can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Abahamic religion

Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected. Christianity including early Christianity, Catholicism, Protestantism, Orthodoxy, and Mormonism can be connected. Islam can be connected. Judaism can be connected.

Secularism can be connected.

Asian religion including Indian religion, East Asian religion, and Persian religion can be connected. Pagan religion including European pagan religion, Asian pagan religion, African pagan religion, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.


Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Particular governments

Particular government including international government, national government, and local government can be connected.

International government including colonial empires and traditional empires can be connected. Modern compacts including world government, regional organizations, special purpose organizations, and temporary alliances can be connected.

National government can be connected. Local government can be connected.

Government activity including succession can be connected. State relations including warfare, diplomacy, and intelligence can be connected. Administration including security, public works and lands, welfare, and taxation can be connected.

Government structure including government forms, executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Law including international law, Western law, Asian law, and tribal law can be connected.


Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Economic systems including economic system types, networks, and firms can be connected. Economic system behavior can be connected.

Industries including social and medical services, commercial and financial industries, communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.


Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

School systems including higher education, secondary education, and primary education can be connected. Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.


Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Cultural events including holidays, disasters, expeditions, awards, gatherings, and performances can be connected. Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, liteature, graphic arts, and language can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportationtechnology, clothing and dress, building technology, and indutrial technology can be connected.

Miscellaneous artifacts including sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.


Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical anthropology, demography, and social foundations can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Particular groups

Particular groups can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.

Royal Society

Human geography

Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected.

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with otehr life, and environmental effects on people can be connected.

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects on people can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected.

Human dispersion can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human origins can be connected. More remains recognized as Australopithecus were found in Tanzania and South Africa. Specimens classified as Homo habilis were first found in Africa in the 1950s.


Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, mortality and morbidity, and birth and fertility can be connected.

Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social foundations including social group behavior, social group types, social control, social interaction, and social presentation can be connected.

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.



Psychology including social psychology, personalisty, mental disorders, developmental psychology, behavior patterns, mind, and behavioral elements can be connected.

Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

The human body including human form and appearance, human disease, human life cucle, human body fuctions, and human body systems can be connected.

Human form and appearance can be connected. Human disease can be connected. The human life cycle can be connected. Human body functions can be connected. Human body systems can be connected.


Science including biology, earth science, astonomy, chemistry, and physics can be used to examine the early 1940s, late 1940s, early 1950s, and late 1950s.


Biology including biohistory, ecology, systematics, organism biology, cell biology, and molecular biology can be connected.

Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic life can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including the study of animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected. Cell biology including cell types, behavior, and structure can be connected. Molecular biology including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics can be connected.

Earth science

Earth science including geohistory, physical geography, atmospheric science, hydrospheric science, and geology can be connected.

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.


Astronomy including galactic astronomy, stellar astronomy, and local astronomy can be connected.

Galactic astronomy including cosmology, galactic types, and galactography can be connected.Stellar astronomy including astronomy of stars including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.


Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected.

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.


Physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be connected.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected.Quantum physics can be connected. Relativity including general relativity and special relativity can be connected. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Mechanics including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected.

Created 4 Mar 2013 Last updated 16 Jan 2018