Eighteenth Century

The 18th century is divided arbitrarily into periods of 20 years. These include the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century. Some historians refer to the "short" 18th century, and others to the "long" 18th century. Major developments include the British defeat of the French empire, the American revolution and the French Revolution, Philosophical developments called the Enlightenment, and the beginnings of the Industrial revolution.

The British empire expanded. Canada was taken from the French, but the North American British colonies revolted and established an independent nation, the United States. Australia was first settled by Europeans, the British, in 1788.

France was at war over remnants of the Habsburgs, in conflict with the United Kingdom and lost most of its American possessions, and suffered the French Revolution. French and English settlement developed in Canada and the British took possession of Canada. Haiti was under French rule.

Spain began to decline compared to other european powers. Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica can be distinguished. Venezuela and Colombia were part of the Spanish colonial empire. Peru and Chile were part of the Spanish colonial empire. Argentina was part of the Spanish colonial empire.

Brazil was part of the Portuguese colonial empire.

Italy was largely dominated by the Habsburgs of Austria and divided into various small dominions.

The Austro-Hungarian empire became one of the great powers of Europe. What is now Germany was dominated by Prussia, which was frequently in conflict with the Habsburgs of Austria. The Dutch colonial empire continued but progressed little. Belgium was mostly ruled by the Hapsburgs.

Several notable rulers ruled the Russian empire, which expanded eastward. Russia began to dominate the Ukraine. Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungarian peoples, and Luthania can be considered.

Early 18th century (1701- 1720 CE)

This includes events of the early 1700s, late 1700s, early 1710s, and late 1710s.

Early mid 18th century (1721- 1740 CE)

This includes events of the early 1720s, late 1720s, early 1730s, and late 1730s.

Mid 18th century (1741- 1760 CE)

This includes events of the early 1740s, late 1740s, early 1750s, and late 1750s.

Late mid 18th century (1761- 1780 CE)

This includes events of the early 1760s, late 1760s, early 1770s, and late 1770s.

Late 18th century (1781- 1800 CE)

This includes events of the early 1780s, late 1780s, early 1790s, and late 1790s.

Other history

Other periods of history including prehistory, antiquity, classical and medieval history; other periods of modern history including the 16th century, 17th century, 19th century, and 20th century; and the future can be used to examine the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century.


Sociology including peoples of the world, including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples; communities, and social mechanics can be used to examine the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century and late 18th century.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, and education can be used to examine the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century.


Religion including particular religions, religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief can be used to examine the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century.

Particular religions

Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asiatic religion, pagan religion, and secularism can be connected.

Abrahamic religion

Abrahamic religion including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism can be connected.


Christianity including Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodoxy can be connected. Primitive Christianity no longer existed. Mormonism had not yet originated.

Catholicism can be connected. Protestantism can be connected. Orthodoxy can be connected.

Islam can be connected. Judaism can be connected.

Asiatic religion

Asiatic religion including Indian religion, East Asian religion, and Persian religion can be connected.

Indian religion

Indian religion including Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism can be connected.

Buddhism can be connected. Hinduism can be connected. Sikhism can be connected. Jainism can be connected.

East Asian religion

East Asian religion including Confucianism, Taoism, Japanese religion, and Korean religion can be connected.

Confucianism can be connected. Taoism can be connected. Japanese religion can be connected. Korean religion can be connected.

Persian religion

Persian religion including Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Manicheanism can be connected. Zoroastrianism can be connected. Mithraism can be connected. Manicheanism can be connected.

Pagan religion

Paan religion including European pagan, Asian pagan, African pagan, American Indian religion, and neopagan religion can be connected.

European pagan religion can be connected. Asian pagan religion can be connected. African pagan religion can be connected. American Indian religion can be connected. Neopagan religion can be connected.

Secularism can be connected.

Religious organization can be connected. Religious practice can be connected. Religious belief can be connected.


Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Particular governments

Particular governments including international government, national government, and local government can be connected.

International government

International government including colonial empires and traditional empires can be connected. Modern compacts do not seem to have originated.

Colonial empires including Spanish, French, Russian, Dutch, and Portuguese empires can be connected. The British empire can be connected.

Traditional empires including European, Asian, and other empires can be connected.

National government can be connected. Local government can be connected.

Government activity

Government activity including state relations, administration, and succession can be connected.

State relations including diplomacy and intelligence can be connected. Warfare can be connected.

Administration including security, public works and lands, welfare, and taxation can be connected. Succession including election, appointment, inheritance, and seizure can be connected.

Government structure

Government structure including forms of government, executive systems, legislative systems, judicial systems, and political parties and interest groups can be connected. Forms of government can be connected. Executive systems can be connected. Legislative systems can be connected. Judicial systems can be connected. Political parties and interest groups can be connected.

Law including tribal law can be connected. International law can be connected. Western law can be connected. Asian law can be connected.


Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected.

Economic systems including firms can be connected. Economic system behavior can be connected. Economic system types can be connected. Networks can be connected.

Industries including commercial and financial industries, Communications industries, transportation industries, building related industries, manufacturing and extraction industries, and food and agricultural industries can be connected. Social and medical services including institutional services, personal and social services, and recreation and entertainment industries can be connected.

Economic activity including consumption, distribution and exchange, and production can be connected.


Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural instiutions, teaching, and resarch can be connected.

School systems including secondary education and primary education can be connected. Higher education can be connected.

Educational organization including administration, faculty, students, and course material can be connected. Cultural institutions including performance venues, libraries, and museums can be connected. Teaching can be connected. Research can be connected.


Family including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.

Particular families can be connected. Kinship can be connected. Parenting can be connected. Marriage can be connected.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be used to examine the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century.

Behavioral culture

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected.

Cultural events such as disasters, expeditions, awards, gatherings, and performances can be connected. Holidays can be connected.

Recreation and entertainment including sports, games, theater, dance, and music can be connected. Occupations including service occupations, industrial occupations, communication occupations, transportation occupations, building occupations, and food-related occupations can be connected. Customs including institutional customs, social interaction customs, clothing and dress customs, living and dwelling customs, and vital customs can be connected.

Conceptual culture

Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected.

Philosophy including philosophical schools and doctrines, special topics, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic can be connected. Applied science including applied social science, medical science, information science, accounting, navigation, engineering science, and measurement can be connected. Mathematics including mathematical rigorization, statistics, geometry, analysis, algebra, and arithmetic can be connected. Literature including particular works, literary types and genres, literary forms, and oral tradition can be connected. Graphic arts including animation, photography, printmaking, painting, and drawing can be connected. Language including languages of the world, writing, and linguistics can be connected.

Material culture

Miscellaneous artifacts including sculpture, musical instruments, toys, and medicines can be connected. Communications technology including electronic communication, graphic communication, and written communication can be connected. Transportation technology including space technology, air transportation, water transportation, land transportation, and packaging can be connected. Clothing and dress including garments, adornment, and fabrics can be connected. Foodstuffs including prepared foods, preserved and processed foods, and raw foodstuffs can be connected. Building technology including outdoor structures, complete buildings, building components, furnishings, and materials can be connected. Industrial technology including advanced technology, utilities, weaponry, machinery, chemical technology, fuels, and tools can be connected.


Anthropology including particular groups, human geography, human ecology, physical athropology, demograhy, and social foundations can be used to examine the early 18th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century.

Particular groups

Royal Society

Human geography

Asian geography including Southwest Asian geography, South Asian geography, Central Asian geography, North Asian geography, East Asian geography, and Southeast Asian geography can be connected. European geography including Balkan geography, Eastern European geography, Central European geography, Italian geography, Northwest European geography, Iberian geography, Scandinavian geography, and Island European geography can be connected. African geography including North African geography, West African geography, North Central African geography, South Central African geography, East African geography, and South African geography can be connected. North American geography including Northeastern American geography, Northwestern American geography, and Southwestern American geography can be connected. South American geography including Amazon geography, Andean geography, and Argentine geography can be connected. Oceanic geography including Australian geography, Pacific Island geography, and Antarctic geography can be connected.

Human ecology

Human effects on the environment can be connected. Relations with other life can be connected. Environmental effects on people can be connected.

Physical anthropology

Human origins can be connected. Racial variation can be connected. Human dispersion can be connected.


Population change can be connected. Population size and structure can be connected. Migration can be connected. Mortality and morbidity can be connected. Birth and fertility can be connected.

Social foundations

Social group behavior can be connected. Social group types can be connected. Social control can be connected. Social interaction can be connected. Social presentation can be connected.

Personal studies

Personal studies including biography, psychology, and the human body can be connected.


Biography can be connected.


Social psychology can be connected. Personality can be connected. Mental disorders can be connected. Developmental psychology can be connected. Behavior patterns can be connected. Mind can be connected. Behavioral elements can be connected.

Human body

Human form and appearance can be connected. Disease can be connected. Life cycle can be connected. Body functions can be connected. Body systems can be connected.


Science including biology, earth science, astronomy, chemistry, and physics can be connected.


Biohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Ecology including biogeography, ecosystems, evolution, system ecology, community ecology, population ecology, and behavioral ecology can be connected. Systematics including animals, fungi, plants, protists, and microbes can be connected. Organism biology including behavior, life cycle, morphology and form, organ systems, tissues, and habitat can be connected. Cell biology including types, behavior, and structure can be connected. Molecular biology including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, other organics, and inorganics can be connected.

Earth science

Geohistory including Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods can be connected. Physical geography including mapping, oceanic geography, and terrestrial geography can be connected. Atmospheric science including climatology, meteorology, and atmospheric structure can be connected. Hydrospheric science including oceanography, glaciology, groundwater, and fresh water can be connected. Geology including interior geology, geologic processes, landforms, petrology, and mineralogy can be connected.


Galactic astronomy can be connected. Stellar astronomy including astrocartography, star groupings, stars, exoplanets, and the interstellar medium can be connected. Local astronomy including the Sun, planetary systems, minor bodies, and the interplanetary medium can be connected.


Chemistry including chemical systems, chemical change, and chemical substances can be connected.

Chemical systems including organic, inorganic, gas, liquid, and solid chemistry can be connected. Chemical change including nuclear rections, chemical reactions, and physical changes can be connected. Chemical substances including mixtures, compounds, and elements can be connected.


Physics including the structure of matter, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and mechanics can be used to examine the 18th century.

The structure of matter including exotic matter, common bulk matter, molecular physics, atomic physics, and subatomic physics can be connected. Quantum physics had not yet developed. Relativity had not yet developed. Electromagnetism including optics, magnetism, electric current, and electrostatics can be connected.

Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics and nonclassical thermodynamics can be connected. Classical thermodynamics including thermodynamic laws, processes, and systems and states can be connected.


Mechancis including gravitation and celestial mechanics, general mechanics, rigid body mechanics, and particle mechanics can be connected.

Gravitation and celestial mechanics including nonrigid celestial mechanics, rigid body celestial mechanics, particle celestial mechanics, and surface gravitation can be connected. General mechanics including wave mechanics, fluid mechanics, and deformable body mechanics can be connected. Rigid body mechanics including dynamic systems, static systems, rotational dynamics, and rigid body description and motion can be connected. Particle mechanics including particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description can be connected.

Created 25 Feb 2013 Last updated 3 Jan 2018