Particle Mechanics

Particle mechanics includes particle systems, energetics, kinetics, kinematics, and particle description.

This is usually considered a fairly small and elementary part of classical mechanics and is not commonly studied at advanced levels. This also differs from the mechanics of subatomic particles, which is more appropriately considered in the structure of matter section.


Particle Systems

Particle systems are composed of multiple interacting particles. Studies of collisions and forces between particles are of special interest.


Energetics includes the study of power, energy, and work.


Kinetics is the study of the causes of motion. Types and cases of force can be considered. The description of force and Newton's three laws of motion belong to this category. Momentum and impulse, and mass belong to this subject.


Kinematics is the description of motion without regard to its causes. Principal subjects of discussion will include particular types, cases, and paths of motion, acceleration, velocity, and position.

Particle Description

The objects or bodies of interest in particle mechanics are called particles.

History including prehistory and antiquity can be connected.

Classical and medieval history including early classical, late classical, early medieval, and late medieval history can be connected. Largely intuitive but incorrect ideas were accepted.

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Modern history including the 16th century can be connected. Particle mechanics developed mostly in modern times.

The 16th century including the early 16th century, early mid 16th century, mid 16th century, late mid 16th century, and late 16th century can be connectd. Galileo began working in mechanics.

The 17th century including the early 17th century, early mid 17th century, mid 17th century, late mid 17th century, and late 17th century can be connected. Isaac Newton formulated his laws of motion. The 18th century including the early 19th century, early mid 18th century, mid 18th century, late mid 18th century, and late 18th century can be connected. Joseph-Louis Lagrange reformulated Newtonian mechanics. The 19th century including the early 19th century, early mid 19th century, mid 19th century, late mid 19th century, and late 19th century can be connected. Alexander Rowan Hamilton developed Hamiltonian mechanics during this period.

The 20th century including the early 20th century, early mid 20th century, and mid 20th century can be connected. Developments in particle mechanics chiefly involved mathematical and computational technique rather than theoretical developments. The late mid 20th century including the early 1960s, late 1960s, early 1970s, and late 1970s can be connected. The late 20th century including the early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, and late 1990s can be connected. The early 21st century including the early 2000s, late 2000s, early 2010s, and late 2010s can be connected. The future can be connected.


Sociology including peoples of the world, communities and social mechanics can be connected.

Peoples of the world

Peoples of the world including nations and major groups of Western Civilization, Asiatic peoples, African peoples, and American Indian peoples can be connected. Particle mechanics is best known and has been developed best in Western Civilization.

Nations such as Russia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Congo DR, Thailand, France, United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Burma, Colombia, Spain, Ukraine, Tanzania, Argentina, Kenya, Poland, Algeria, Canada, Iraq, Uganda, Morocco, Sudan, Peru, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Ghana, North Korea, Mozambique, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Côte d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Angola, Cameroon, Romania, Chile, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guatemala, Mali, Ecuador, Cambodia, Malawi, Zambia, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Chad, Cuba, Belgium, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Guinea, Burundi, Haiti, Hungary, Somalia, Sweden, Belarus, Dominican Republic, Azerbaijan, Benin, Austria, Honduras, United Arab Emirates, South Sudan, Switzerland, Israel, Tajikistan, Bulgaria, Serbia, Hong Kong, Papua New Guinea, Libya, Paraguay, Jordan, Laos, El Salvador, Togo, Nicaragua, Eritrea, Denmark, Kyrgystan, Slovakia, Finland, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Turkmenistan, Norway, Central African Republic, Ireland, Georgia, New Zealand, Costa Rica, Palestinian Territories, Croatia, Lebanon can be connected.

Western Civilization including Anglic peoples can be connected. Particle mechanics has been most developed in Western Civilization, although Anglic peoples have not always been the most prominent. Brazil can be connected. Anglic peoples such as those of the United States can be connected.

Asiatic peoples including South Asian, Oriental, and Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples can be connected. The study of particle mechanics has largely been adopted from Western Civilization. Pakistan can be connected. Cities such as Tokyo can be connected.

South Asian peoples such as those of India can be connected. Oriental peoples such as those of China can be connected. Southeast Asian and Oceanic peoples such as those of Indonesia can be connected.

African peoples such as those of Nigeria can be connected.

American Indian peoples including Middle American Indian and North American Indian peoples can be connected. The study and practice of Particle mechanics among these peoples has been adopted from Western Civilization. Brazil can be connected. Middle American Indian peoples such as those of United States can be connected. North American Indian peoples such as those of United States can be connected.


Communities such as Seoul, Mexico City, New York City, Mumbai, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Shanghai, Manila, Karachi, Cairo, Beijing, Osaka, Canton, Moscow, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Dacca, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Shenzhen, Lagos, Paris, Nagoya, Lima, Chicago, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Chennai, Bengaluru, London, Saigon, Donguan, Hyderabad, Chengdu, Lahore, Johannesburg, Tehran, Essen, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Wuhan, Ahmedabad, Chongqing, Baghdad, Hangzhou, Toronto, Kuala Lumpur, Santiago, Dallas, San Francisco, Quanzhou, Miami, Shenyang, Belo Horizonte, Philadelphia, Nanjing; Madrid, Houston, Xian, Milan, Luanda, Pune; Singapore, Riyadh can be connected.

World cities such as Tokyo and Seoul can be connected.

Social mechanics including social change, social types, and social structure can be connected.


Institutions including religion, government, economics, education, and families can be connected.

Religion including religious organization, religious practice, and religious belief appears to be only weakly connected. Particular religions including Abrahamic religion, Asiatic religion, pagan religion, and secularism appear to be only weakly connected.

Government including particular governments, government activity, government structure, and law can be connected.

Economics including economic systems, industries, and economic activity can be connected. Education including school systems, educational organization, cultural institutions, teaching, and research can be connected. Families including particular families, kinship, parenting, and marriage can be connected.


Culture including behavioral culture, conceptual culture, and material culture can be connected.

Behavioral culture including cultural events, recreation and entertainment, occupations, and customs can be connected. Conceptual culture including philosophy, applied science, mathematics, literature, graphic arts, and language can be connected. Material culture including miscellaneous artifacts, communications technology, transportation technology, clothing and dress, foodstuffs, building technology, and industrial technology can be connected.

Anthropology including social foundations can be connected. Particular groups can be connected. Human geography including Asian geography, European geography, African geography, North American geography, South American geography, and Oceanic geography can be connected. Human ecology including human effects on the environment, relations with other life forms, and environmental effects on people can be connected. Physical anthropology including human dispersion, racial variation, and human origins can be connected. Demography including population change, population size and structure, migration, death, and birth and fertility can be connected.

Personal studies including psychology and the human body can be connected. Biography can be connected.

Other science including biology, earth science, astronomy, and chemistry can be connected. Other physics including the structure of matter, quantum physics, relativity, and electromagnetism can be connected. Thermodynamics including statistical mechanics, nonclassical thermodynamics, and classical thermodynamics can be connected. Other mechanics can be connected.

Created 3 Mar 2017 Last updated 23 Sep 2017