Category Archives: History

Early Medieval History #1

During this period, Latin peoples including Italian, French, and Hispanic peoples, and Germanic peoples began to surpass the Balkan peoples. Anglic peoples, Northeast European peoples, and Nordic peoples also began to appear in recorded history.

Persian peoples remained prominent in this period. The Sassanian Persian empire was succeeded by the Umayyad Caliphate and then the Abbasid Caliphate of Islam. Egypt was under Roman (in this period known as Byzantine) rule. Anatolia was mostly under Byzantine rule, but Turks began to immigrate. The lands of Mesopotamian peoples were contested by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires, until they were conquered by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.

The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties ruled China. In South Asia, the Gupta empire ended and various successor states arose. Islam also entered what is now Pakistan.

In Northern East Africa, the Christian kingdoms of Alosia, Makura, and Nobatia in what is now Sudan resisted Islamic conquest. The kingdom of Axum was present in Ethiopia,. Bantu-speaking peoples continued to move into South Africa.

I still do not yet have many details of American Indian peoples.

Late Classical history #1

This period covered developments 1 AD to 500 AD, although I personally prefer to use CE, for Common Era or Christian Era. The primary focus shifts from the Greek and Hellenistic peoples to Latin peoples. The Italian peoples with the Roman Empire were most prominent. The French peoples are also significant. I am still working back other Latin peoples from later periods. Greek and Hellenistic peoples were also important in this period, but were conquered by the Romans, and were gradually outnumbered and eclipsed in later periods. Germanic peoples also appeared in written history, as they were contested by the Romans. British peoples also appeared. Northeast European and Nordic peoples are less well known.

Among Persian peoples, the Parthian empire was succeeded by the Sassanian empire. In Anatolia and in Egypt, the Eastern Roman empire prevailed. From this point on, Oriental peoples began to outweigh those of South Asia. In China, the Han empire was followed by the Jin. In South Asia, there were the Indo-Parthian, Kusha, and Gupta empires.

In Ethiopia, there was the kingdom of Axum, and the peoples of interior East Africa were also significant. I am still working back interior Western Africa, In South Africa, Bantu speaking peoples were continuing to move into the region.

I still do not yet have details for Middle American Indian, South American Indian, or North American Indian peoples.

From this point on, I have more information for particular religions. Abrahamic religion began to displace Pagan religion. Asian religion was also important. Secularism was barely noticeable, except that it began to have an influence on Christianity.

Early Classical History #1

Beginning in this period, I have chosen to shift the primary emphasis from Asiatic peoples to Western Civilization. This was the period of the classical Greeks. Other Balkan peoples were present, but these are being examined in later periods for now. Latin peoples were also important: The recorded history of Rome also dates to this period, but again, will be considered later. Other European peoples also began to emerge from obscurity.

Middle Eastern peoples were still the most advanced and influential. Persian peoples remained important. Egypt and Mesopotamia were at first under Persian rule, and then came under Greek and Roman rule. India and Pakistan were influenced by Greeks and Persians, and the Mauryan empire arose. In China, the Warring States period ended and first the Qin empire, then the Han empire became prominent.

African peoples are being traced, largely because they were important in earlier periods. In Ethiopia, the poorly known kingdom known as D’mt was present, but there were also significant peoples in Interior East Africa. I am starting to consider Interior West Africa. In South Africa, it is believed that Bantu-speaking groups began to enter, but since African peoples were generally less developed than their Asian or European counterparts, I have not yet examined them in sufficiently close detail.

Early 1st millennium BC #1

Egypt was ruled in the 3rd intermediate period by the 21st through 26th dynasties until it was conquered by Persia. Mesopotamian peoples were also conquered by Persia. I don’t yet have much detail of Persia, since I am still working back to this. In Anatolia, the Phrygian, Lydian, Carian, and Lycian peoples followed the collapse of the Hittite empire Persian peoples conquered Egyptian and Mesopotamian peoples in this period, although I am still working Iran, or Persia. In what are now India and Pakistan, Vedic peoples were continuing to develop, and where encountered by the Persian empire. Chinese peoples were also developing, although I do not yet have China specifically back to to this period.

In Western Civilization, the pre-Classic Greek peoples followed the Mycenaean empire, and among Latin peoples, Etruscan and Roman peoples were present. Because they were important in earlier periods, Northern East African, Interior East African, and Central East African peoples are being considered, and I am starting to look at Interior West African peoples. In South Africa, the San and Khoikhoi peoples seem to have predominated. I do not yet have details of Central African peoples, or of Middle American or South American Indian peoples, but I am considering them.

Late 2nd Millennium BC #1

Egypt was ruled by the New Kingdom of the 18th through 20th dynasties, which was followed by the 3rd intermediate period. Mesopotamian peoples were still important in this period, although I don’t yet have the details. In Anatolia, the Hittite empire prevailed. I don’t yet have details for Levantine, Persian, Arabian, or North African peoples. This was the period of most of the early Old Testament. Vedic culture was forming in what are now India and Pakistan. I still don’t have details for Chinese, Southeast Asian, or Central Asian peoples.

Mycenaean peoples were present on the Greek mainland, supplanting the Minoan civilization of Crete. Other European peoples are not yet detailed. African peoples are represented by Interior East African peoples, Northern East African peoples, and Central East African peoples. I also do not yet have details of Western African peoples. Because of their importance in earlier times, I have mention of the San and Khokhoi peoples of South Africa. I do not yet have details of Middle American Indian peoples or South American Indian peoples

Early 2nd Millennium BC #1

For this period, there are written sources dating back to the late 2nd millennium BC, primarily in the Middle East, which give a somewhat hazy and imperfect view of the early 2nd millennium BC. During the early 1st millennium BC, the Hebrew bible was being composed, which has information about earlier times. The Greek epics were being composed as well. During the early classical period, Greek and Roman sources and scholarship give a little information of the early 2nd millennium BC. This continued into the late classical period. In early medieval times, Christian scholars preserved a few records of earlier times. In the 16th and 17th century,students relied heavily on traditional accounts, but in the 18th century, there were the beginnings of archaeological investigations. In the 19th century, there were numerous discoveries of ancient ruins and sources, which brought long-lost contemporary accounts of the early 2nd millennium BC to light. In the 20th century, historical scholarship continued to develop. From the mid 20th century onward, I am considering South Asia. Although Western and Middle Eastern scholarship were better developed, I don’t yet have enough material from present day nations corresponding to the peoples of early interest. In the 21st century, I have connections to Egypt.

In Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of the 11th through 14th dynasties was succeeded by the 2nd intermediate period of the 15th through 17th dynasties and the New Kingdom of the 18th dynasty. Although Mesopotamian peoples were important, I still need to work details of Iraq from later periods. In Anatolia, Hattian, Hurrian, and Hittite peoples were present. I do not yet have details of Levantine, Arabian, or Persian peoples. It is thought that Indo-European speaking peoples appeared in India and Pakistan, as Harappan civilization declined. I do not yet have details of Oriental, Southeast Asian or Central Asian peoples. It is thought from linguistic evidence that Indo-European speakers from what are now Southern Russia and Central Asia began to migrate into Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia, but I don’t yet have the details.

The Minoan civilization was present in this period, but I do not yet have details of the rest of Europe. I am also still working on Eastern Africa, Western African, Southern Central African, and Central African peoples in later periods, and on Middle American and South American peoples.

I am still working on social mechanics, although agrarian developments and societies were predominant. Pagan religion was also the most important. Asian religion was beginning to become more distinct from pagan religion generally. I have also supposed that Abrahamic religion dates back to this period. I am proceeding with studies of Government, economics, education, and family, but these aren’t yet fully integrated with the peoples of the world.

Late 3rd millennium BC #1

The late 3rd millennium BC from 2500 BC to 2000 BC was investigated in later periods of antiquity, classical and medieval times, and has been more investigated in modern times, chiefly beginning in the 18th century. With archaeological discoveries in the 19th century, 20th century, and 21st century, knowledge of it has been improving.

Asiatic peoples remained the most important, and Middle Eastern peoples the most prominent of those. In Egypt, the Old kingdom of Egypt in the 5th and 6th dynasties, the first intermediate period, and the Middle kingdom with the 11th dynasty prevailed. Mesopotamian peoples were also prominent, although details are somewhat obscure until I have covered more of the history of Iraq. Hattian and Hurrian peoples were present in what is now Turkey. I have connections to Arabian and Levantine peoples, although not much detail until I get to more specific countries. I have not brought North African and Persian peoples back this far yet.

In South Asia, the Harappan civiliation reached its height in what is now Pakistan. Oriental, Southeast Asian and Oceanic, and Central Asian peoples are not yet closely examined.

European peoples had not developed as much, although among Balkan peoples and specifically Greek peoples, Minoan civilization was present. I only have mention of the peoples of what are now Latin, Northeast European, and Germanic regions.

African peoples can also be considered. East African peoples were the most prominent. Interior East African peoples may have been the most important, but I am still bringing back the history of Sudan from modern times. I don’t yet have details of Northern East African or Central East African peoples. For Western Africa, I am still bringing back Interior West Africa through classical and medieval times. Southern Africa and Central Africa also do not have much detail.

American Indian peoples have limited mention of Middle American Indian peoples, and South American Indian peoples.

Agrarian developments and agrarian society were the most prominent in this century, but I do not yet have details. Pagan religion and Asian religion were predominant. International government began in this period, but national governments can also be traced. Government activity including such things as warfare, diplomacy, and intelligence is applicable, among various peoples, and government structure and law can also be considered. Economic systems, industries, and economic activity can also be traced, and school systems. Families and elements of culture are mentioned, but again, I don’t yet have many details.

Early 3rd Millennium BC #1

The advent of recorded history makes it possible to connect this period to later periods of antiquity, classical and medieval times, and modern history. This was supplemented by archaeology beginning in the 18th century and continuing into the 19th century, 18th century, and 21st century.

Among Asian peoples, numerous cities were founded. Agrarian developments predominated, as institutions developed. culture flourished, and populations grew. Horticultural societies and hunting and gathering societies persisted. The most important were Middle Eastern peoples. In Egypt, the Old Kingdom including the first through fourth dynasties was present. Among Mesopotamian peoples, cities were also founded and developed. Arabian peoples can also be considered. Anatolian peoples were already becoming more important, but need to be brought back. After Middle Eastern peoples, South Asia was becoming more significant. There was more development in what is now Pakistan than in what is now India. Oriental, Southeast Asian, and Central Asian peoples were also developing.

My emphasis shifts in this period, with European peoples getting earlier and greater emphasis than African peoples. Agrarian developments were slower than among Asian peoples. Balkan peoples were probably the most advanced. Greek peoples are still being brought back from later periods, although I have connections to Latin and Northeast European regions.

In Africa, I am still concentrating on Eastern African peoples. Interior East African peoples are the most developed. Sudan is being pulled back through classical and medieval history because it includes ancient Nubia, which has connections to Egypt. Northern East African peoples and Central East African peoples seem to have been less developed. There is also another shift in emphasis, as Western African peoples seem to have advanced more than Southern African peoples. Interior West Africa is being brought back through classical and medieval times.

American Indian peoples are also being considered. Middle American Indian peoples are somewhat connected, and South American Indian peoples are being brought back through later periods.

Elements of social mechanics are being investigated. Particular religions are being considered. Pagan religion predominated. I am considering the beginnings of Asian religion although this is not clearly distinct from pagan religion in this period. International government had not yet developed, although national government had. Early forms of Government activity, government structure, and law are being developed, and economic systems, industries, and economic activity are traceable. I can also begin to identify school systems.

Late Prehistory #1

Late prehistory is the name I give to the period from about 8000 BC to 3000 BC. The Pleistocene epoch of geologic history had ended and the Holocene begun. Neanderthals and other early humans were extinct. Studies of this period began in the 19th century, and were extended considerably in the 20th and 21st centuries.

This was the later period of the Stone age, and toward the end of this period, what I call agrarian developments had begun. Throughout this period people began to settle in towns and cities and and shift from hunting and gathering to horticultural and agrarian societies. Modern institutions began to form, and in the last millennium of late prehistory, written history began.

Among the peoples of Asia, Middle eastern peoples were most prominent. In Egypt, this was mostly the predynastic period. Civilization was also developing in Mesopotamia. I have Arabian peoples connected. Levantine and North African peoples still need to be connected to later periods. Civilization was also developing in South Asia. The Orient and Southeast Asia seem to have remained in the Stone age.

Among African peoples, Eastern Africa seems to have remained most prominent. In North Africa, I am still working Ethiopia back through antiquity. The region of Interior West Africa has cultural connections to Egypt, so Central East Africa becomes comparatively less significant. For Southern Africa, South Africa proper is still being connected back through antiquity. Peoples of Western Africa and Central Africa are being mostly held for later development.

European peoples were mostly remaining in the Stone age. Among Balkan peoples, I am still working with connecting Greece, although Latin and Northeast European peoples are also getting some attention. I have not forgotten about American Indian peoples. Middle American peoples seem to be the most important. North American Indian and South American Indian peoples are being brought back through later periods.

During this period, communities in general are being connected to social institutions, although this is not yet applied to specific communities. I am also connecting social mechanics to particular institutions. Social change is being connected to social types and structure, and both agrarian developments and the stone ages are being considered. The leading social types were what I have classified as agrarian, although most of the peoples of the world were in horticultural and hunting and gathering societies. Community and regional structure and class structure can be considered, although I don’t yet have much detail.

Religion was chiefly pagan, and I am looking at the connections with other social institutions. I am also considering various governments. International government had not yet developed, although national governments can be traced this far back into history as in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Basic consideration of economics and school systems is beginning, although I still do not yet have details.

Middle Prehistory #1

This is roughly the period from 50,000 years BP to about 8000 BC. It is thought that during this period, modern humans were replacing Neanderthal man and expanding into the Americas. This was the latest Ice age. Oceans were at their lowest level, providing for a land bridge between Asia and North America.

In the 19th century, as the field of prehistoric archaeology was beginning to develop, archaeologists and anthropologists were primarily interested in Europe, with some interest in Asia. In the 20th century there was more attention given to African peoples, which has caused some revision of older concepts.

The primary focus of human and cultural development shifted from Africa to Asia. This was still the stone age, but social institutions presumably developed and cultural changes can be traced through artifacts that can be dated to this period. At present, I can most easily follow the Middle East. There are comparatively few developments in Egypt. Although I presume that the Nile river provided a convenient migration route from Africa, there have not been many remains of this period. Arabia and North Africa are still being considered in later periods.

In Africa, I am still concentrating on East Africa, although Northern East Africa takes priority over Central East Africa. I am working here on connecting Ethiopia. Northern East Africa is also being considered. For Southern Africa, I am still working the history of South Africa back through antiquity. For European civilization, I am considereing Balkan and Latin peoples, and bringing back the history of Greek peoples. I am also giving some attention to American Indian peoples.

I still don’t have much detail on the stone ages, although I am giving attention to institutional changes, cultural changes, and demographic changes such as migrations, and cultural innovation. What I term horticultural societies began to develop late in this period, although hunting and gathering societies predominated. Religion was mostly pagan, although I am not yet prepared to discuss details. I can begin to follow government and economics in this period, although the details are still fuzzy.