Late Prehistory #1

Late prehistory is the name I give to the period from about 8000 BC to 3000 BC. The Pleistocene epoch of geologic history had ended and the Holocene begun. Neanderthals and other early humans were extinct. Studies of this period began in the 19th century, and were extended considerably in the 20th and 21st centuries.

This was the later period of the Stone age, and toward the end of this period, what I call agrarian developments had begun. Throughout this period people began to settle in towns and cities and and shift from hunting and gathering to horticultural and agrarian societies. Modern institutions began to form, and in the last millennium of late prehistory, written history began.

Among the peoples of Asia, Middle eastern peoples were most prominent. In Egypt, this was mostly the predynastic period. Civilization was also developing in Mesopotamia. I have Arabian peoples connected. Levantine and North African peoples still need to be connected to later periods. Civilization was also developing in South Asia. The Orient and Southeast Asia seem to have remained in the Stone age.

Among African peoples, Eastern Africa seems to have remained most prominent. In North Africa, I am still working Ethiopia back through antiquity. The region of Interior West Africa has cultural connections to Egypt, so Central East Africa becomes comparatively less significant. For Southern Africa, South Africa proper is still being connected back through antiquity. Peoples of Western Africa and Central Africa are being mostly held for later development.

European peoples were mostly remaining in the Stone age. Among Balkan peoples, I am still working with connecting Greece, although Latin and Northeast European peoples are also getting some attention. I have not forgotten about American Indian peoples. Middle American peoples seem to be the most important. North American Indian and South American Indian peoples are being brought back through later periods.

During this period, communities in general are being connected to social institutions, although this is not yet applied to specific communities. I am also connecting social mechanics to particular institutions. Social change is being connected to social types and structure, and both agrarian developments and the stone ages are being considered. The leading social types were what I have classified as agrarian, although most of the peoples of the world were in horticultural and hunting and gathering societies. Community and regional structure and class structure can be considered, although I don’t yet have much detail.

Religion was chiefly pagan, and I am looking at the connections with other social institutions. I am also considering various governments. International government had not yet developed, although national governments can be traced this far back into history as in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Basic consideration of economics and school systems is beginning, although I still do not yet have details.

Leave a Reply